Monday, September 30, 2019

Finite automata

The symbols of the sequence are presented sequentially to a machine M. M responds with a binary signal to each Input. If the string scanned so far Is accepted, then the light goes on, else the light Is A language acceptor * Lesson 3 employs the treatment of this subject as found in Machines, Languages, and Computation by Denning, Dennis and Qualitz , Prentice-Hall. Transducer Abstract machines that operate as transducers are of interest in connection with the translation of languages.The following transducer produces a sentence (l) 12) r(r,) in response to the input sentence s(l) s(2) s(m) translated into a specific sentence of an output language. Generator When M is started from its initial state, it emits a sequence of symbols (1) r(2) r(i) r(t) from a set known as its output alphabet. We will begin our study with the transducer model of abstract machine (or automaton). We often refer to such a device as a Finite State Machine (FSM) or as an automaton with output.Finite State Machi ne (FSM) The FSM model arises naturally from physical settings in which information-denoting Only a finite number of operations may be performed in a finite amount of time. Such systems are necessarily discrete. Problems are quite naturally decomposed into sequences of steps Ã¢â‚¬â€œ hence our model is sequential. We require that our machine not be subject to uncertainty, hence its behavior is deterministic. There are two finite state machine models : Mealy model Ã¢â‚¬â€œ in which outputs occur during transitions.Moore model Ã¢â‚¬â€œ outputs are produced upon arrival at a new state. Mealy Model of FSM Mealy model Ã¢â‚¬â€œ transition assigned output Q = finite set of states S = input alphabet // the machine's memory // set of stimuli R = output alphabet // set of responses = the machine's initial state ql : state transition function (or next state function) g : output function g: SOR example Design a FSM (Mealy model) which takes in binary inputs and produces a Ã¢â‚¬Ëœ1' as output wh enever the parity of the input string ( so far ) is even.When designing such models, we should ask ourselves Ã¢â‚¬Å"What is the state set of the machine? Ã¢â‚¬Å". The state set Q corresponds to what we need to remember about input strings. We note that the number of possible input strings corresponds to I which is countably infinite. We observe, however, that a string may have only one of two possible parities. even parity Ã¢â‚¬â€œ if nl(w) is even. odd parity Ã¢â‚¬â€œ if nl(w) is odd. And this is all that our machine must remember about a string scanned so far.Hence IQI = 2 where Q = {E, o} with ql = E indicating the string has even parity and if Mt is in state o, then the string has odd parity. And finally, of course, we must specify the output function g for this Mealy machine. According to this machine's specifications, it is supposed to produce an output of Ã¢â‚¬Ëœ1' whenever the parity of the input string so far is even. Hence, all arcs leading into state E should be labeled w ith a Ã¢â‚¬Ëœ1' output.Parity Checker (Mealy machine) state diagram Observe our notation that g(o, 1) = 1 is indicated by the arc from state o to state E ith a Ã¢â‚¬Ëœ1' after a slash state table present state input = O next state, output input = 1 for this parity machine Observe for the input 10100011 our machine produces the output sequence the corresponding admissible state sequence a second example Construct a Mealy model of an FSM that behaves as a two-unit delay. i. e. O , otherwise A sample input/output session is given below : time 123456789 stimuluso 001 1 01 OO response O O O 1 1 0 1 Observe that r(6)= 1 which equals s(4) and so on We know that S = R = {O, 1}. Moore model of FSM Ms Ã¢â‚¬  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ the output function assigns an output symbol to each state. Q = finite set of internal states S = finite input alphabet R = finite output alphabet f : state transition function h : output function ql = EQ is the initial state Design a Moore machine that will analyze input sequen ces in the binary alphabet S {O, 1}.Let w = s(l) s(2) s(t) be an input string NO(w) = number of O's in w NI(w)= number of I's in w then we have that IWI = NO(w) + NI(w)= The last output of Ms should equal : r(t) = [NI(W) So naturally, the output alphabet R = {O, Ã¢â‚¬â€œ NO(w)] mod 4. stimulus 1 1 01 1 1 OO response 0 1 2 1 23 0 3 2 Observe that the length of the output sequence is one longer than the input sequence. Why is this so? Btw : This will always be the case. The corresponding Moore machine : c 2 3 This machine is referred to as an up-down counter.For the previous input sequence : 11011100 the state sequence is : second example machine should output a Ã¢â‚¬Ëœ1' whenever this pattern matches the last four inputs, and there has been no overlap, otherwise output a Ã¢â‚¬ËœO'. Hence s = R = {0, 1}. Here is a sample input/output sequence for this machine : 12345678910 11 12 s 101 We observe that 1 because s(2) s(3) s(4) s(5) however r(8) = O because there has been overlap stnce s (8) s(9) S(IO) 1) = 1011 What is the state set for this machine 0101101 000100000010 1011 Ask yourself what is it that Ms must remember in order to function correctly.Machine Identification Problem The following input-output behavior was exhibited by a transition-assigned machine (Mealy machine) Mt known to contain three states. Find an appropriate state table for M. Is the table unique? 12345678910 11 12 13 14 input 0000100010 1 0 output 01 01 000010 1 0 0 1 This problem is useful in fault detection and fault location experiments with sequential circuits ( i. e. digital circuits with memory ). One designs a computer circuit. Six months (or six years) later, how does one know that the circuit is working correctly? Where do we start

Sunday, September 29, 2019

The biggest thing I have learned from music

In Ã¢â‚¬Å"The Art of Eating Spaghetti,Ã¢â‚¬  Russel Baker's discovered his passion to become a writer. Wrting was the only talent and it was the only outlet for him to find who he is. If there was one thing that I've noticed that has changed me, that is music. Before I got into music, I was someone completely different. But then about 10 years ago, I finally bought my first music CD; it was a soundtrack to the movie, Crow: City of Angels. That day, something just clicked in me, like a missing piece of a puzzle. After that, while my sister was at school, every chance I got I went into her already extensive music collection and began listening to more and more music. It was essentially a snowball effect from there. I just kept getting my hands on more and more music until I've amassed currently almost 500 albums. Much of my personality changed as well. It changed many of the ways I looked at the world because I started hearing so many more perspectives on it through the music. Instead of just a visual representation I had grown up with, I now had an audio representation of the world. So many ways of translation just coming straight to me through my ears. My views just broadened up so much and I started to accept much more into my life. I used to never like change. If I was at a restaurant, I'd get only what I absolutely knew I would like. Music made me to become much more experimental as it opened my eyes and helped me become much more acceptable of change and trying new things. I would say that's the biggest thing I have learned from music. Is the prospect of how beautiful things can become if looked at in more than one way. Music showed this to me and taught me a way to be able to finally express it. I used to have such a hard time expressing myself, but music became my avenue for expression. Now whatever effects me, it can show in my work, and the music I write. Again, music taught me how to accept change, and also to become more passionate. Well it kind of goes hand in hand to me, as expression leads to passion, and vice versa. I tried to do that with art, but it just never fully took me the way music did. I've grown and changed more from music than anything else in my entire life. If you knew me ten years ago, you wouldn't even know me anymore. It's funny how much some of the most simple things to some people, can be so complex and life changing to others. But thankfully, I was fortunate enough to discover music, because I can't imagine anymore the way I was. Now my world is so much more open to interpretation in ways I never thought possible before. Music would probably be the first drug I can say I ever discovered. When I listened to that movie soundtrack for the first time, listening to all those great bands, I just felt such a rush like nothing I ever felt before. It was insane to me. That cd was a gateway for me to bigger and better music. A lot of music is just music to me, thats all, I still enjoy it, but some bands and soundtracks are something else. My prime example is Tool. When I first heard their song called Ã¢â‚¬Å"Third EyeÃ¢â‚¬ , I learned that music carried no boundaries. This was music unlike any rock I've ever heard before. It was so intricate as it went on. So many parts to the song that sound nothing alike, but they mesh together like a beautiful tapestry. Parts are peaceful and beautiful, and parts are a tempest of intruments, and each section rung a note inside me, just taking me someplace else entirely when I closed my eyes. Its like, behind my eyelids, I could see what the singer was seeing as he sang his heart out. The first time this ever happened to me, I could remember vividly like I was on a sandy desert, but it wasn't hot, it was rather cool and the sky was pinkish. And there were pools of water all over the place, like it just rained for hours, and inside the sand, there were black shiny stones everywhere scattered. After that happened to me, I been hooked on Tool ever since. No music has had a more profound effect on me before that day. Man, if anything can make a grown woman feel like a little child that is so excited before christmas, that is Tool for me. So overall, music has showed me how much more there is in the world besides what we see everyday. The eyes are just one sense, and the ears can tell just as much about the world as the eyes. The world just appears more beautiful when you can see deeper inside of it. You have to see the abstract of something to truly appreciate it for how beautiful it is.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Law for business Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 3

Law for business - Essay Example Dickman, however, stated that there is a requirement of proximity between the claimant and the defendant (Caparo Industries Place v. Dickman [1990] 2 AC 605). Foreseeability alone is not enough to create a duty of care (Hill v. Chief Constable of West Yorkshire [1989] AC 53, 60). Thus, under the Donaghue test, a duty of care would be established. Donoghue concerned a decomposed snail in the claimants ginger beer. Initially, there was held to not be a duty of care, as there was not a proximity between the claimant and the shopkeeper, as the claimant did not purchase the ginger beer. However, the Donoghue court decided that the shopkeeper did owe a duty of care to the woman, as it was reasonably foreseeable that she would be harmed by having snail in her drink, and she would have been considered to be a Ã¢â‚¬Å"neighborÃ¢â‚¬  (Donoghue v. Stevenson, p. 580). Thus, under Donoghue, there would be sufficient proximity between the claimant, Jeff, and Rodney to establish a duty of care. Just as in the Donoghue case, there was not a special relationship between the parties, yet the harm was reasonably foreseeable Ã¢â‚¬â€œ it was reasonably foreseeable that, if one drinks and drives, an accident may occur. Jeff would be considered to be a Ã¢â‚¬Å"neighborÃ¢â‚¬  in the loose sense of the term, in that the loose sense of the term would describe a Ã¢â‚¬Å"neighborÃ¢â‚¬  as anybody who would be reasonably foreseeably harmed by the defendants actions. Therefore, under Donoghue, the first element, duty, is established. Next, did Rodney breach that duty? In other words, did he act as a reasonable man would act? (Blyth v. Company Proprietors of the Birmingham Water Works (1856) 11 Ex Ch 781). This is the objective test for whether or not a breach occurred. At first glance, it would seem that Rodney did not act reasonably Ã¢â‚¬â€œ he drank and drove. And, there was some indication that the vehicle might have been unsafe, as it was described as Ã¢â‚¬Å"rather old.Ã¢â‚¬  Therefore,

Friday, September 27, 2019

Business Organisation and policy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Business Organisation and policy - Essay Example The PESTLE analysis is an important tool for understanding main environmental forces affecting global pharmaceutical industry based on data on political, economical, socio-cultural, legal and environmental concerns analysis provides. Political factors affecting pharmaceutical industry are in most cases interlinked as governments work to establish regulatory frameworks to govern both state and international issues involved in the industry. Therefore, governments have introduced both formal and informal rules to manage the industry through measures that include taxation policies, trade restrictions and tariffs, political stability. Apart from providing an enabling environment through political stability, governments have supported this industry based on the understanding of the role of healthy citizenry to economic development of the country. Pharmaceuticals have therefore worked with governments in introducing drugs to different countries based on the understanding of their importance to the wellbeing of a country. Governments have also moved to create monopolies in the industry as powerful buyers of drugs for controlling expenditure in statesÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ health care systems (Smith, 2012). Therefore, political arena influences regulations concerning practices of pharmaceutical business and depends on government practices that supports healthcare as an important contributor to welfare of the nation. Political goodwill from the government is important for the pharmaceutical industry especially with regard to patent from period covering experiments to release into the market. Renewal of patents is a concern for manufacturers in the industry especially due to the long period it takes for manufacturers to conduct research, test, then release drugs for human consumption. Given that patents exist for approximately twenty years, political goodwill is necessary for the renewal of such contracts to allow manufacturers proceed

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Discussion Questions Week 5 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 2

Discussion Questions Week 5 - Essay Example They select fruit juice. Passing the grocery shelves to explore options, the consumer sees fruit juice on the Sunshine label and picks up the bottle only to realize in the post-purchase situation that the product did not fulfill their needs. The ethical problem in this situation is one of being misled and the company should reconsider new positioning tactics which are low cost and easy to incorporate. Instead of focusing on the productÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s attributes, a new positioning tactic should be decided which focuses less on the product and more on quality. Rather than calling Sunshine a fruit juice, it could be marketed as a quality fruit juice substitute to undo any negative public relations damage done by the consumer and government groups. In this situation it was probably not an intentional deception, however the company does maintain the responsibility to be as truthful as possible to avoid losing customers and reputation. Technology impacts marketing in a variety of ways, including how quickly the marketing message can be received by the consumer as well as how many consumers can be reached. For example, in a form of mass advertising, e-mail and mobile handset devices can target willing buyers who have already shown an interest in the product by signing up for auto promotional alerts. Those consumers who might have visited the companyÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s website can receive exclusive coupons, as another positioning strategy, to build loyalty in a way that the bricks-and-mortar sales environment could not. Technology also impacts methods and activities of distribution, as new software programs designed to enhance internal warehousing functions can minimize labor costs associated in the supply chain or any other number of cost reductions. More efficient external partners can minimize the risks and costs of marketing. This is an important improvement when marketing budget is on the line. From a business to business view, technology such as the VoIP, or voice

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Strategy and Competition Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Strategy and Competition - Case Study Example In 2008, the company recorded revenue of \$ 705 million which is far better when compared to 2004Ã¢â‚¬â„¢s \$9.7 million (Ivey, 2010, p.8). This was attributed to the support that several authorities within the world have given which promoted the execution of the PV technology. Canadian Solar Company has been experiencing losses over the past few years though its revenues have grown by more than 135 percent over the years (Ivey, 2010, p.8). These loses have been attributed to the high competition around the world which have contributed to a decrease in the companyÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s market share (Ivey, 2010, p.9). The management under the leadership of Dr. Qu is faced with the mandate of turning the losses into profits amid the high international competition and economic crisis by formulating and executing a viable profit plan. No business can operate in a vacuum. Each and every business requires an environment to operate in. After a thorough analysis, the external environment of Canadian solar company consist of the political environment, the technological environment, the social environment, the economical environment, competitors in the industry and the industry itself. According to PorterÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s five forces model, Industry encompasses the competitors, the suppliers, the consumers or the customers, technology available and the restrictions available for entry and exit in the industry by firms. The market consists of potential customers who include the domestic users and commercial users. Canadian Solar incorporation produces a wide variety of products such as the industrial and automotive and consumer products (Ivey, 2010, p.6) to suffice the customerÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s needs. The various authorities in the different countries have greatly promoted and encouraged production of and the technology of the PV cells. Most of the countries across the universe in 2008 and 2009 provided incentives for the development of the technology e.g. China and Canada (Ivey, 2010, p.7). Government

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Reflection essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 3

Reflection - Essay Example The State presented the second charge on grounds that it was in general public interest that Bell be kept behind bars. The State supported their information that Bell had been convicted of First degree robbery, Third degree robbery, and possession of narcotics with the intent of selling them (STATE OF CONNECTICUT v. ARNOLD BELL, 2011). The State also presented information that Bell was released on supervision from Court when he was charged with the murder of Fumiati. So, the trial court heard the case for the second charge Ã¢â‚¬Å"whether the history of Bell conducted was of nature that he should be kept behind bars for an extended periodÃ¢â‚¬  (STATE OF CONNECTICUT v. ARNOLD BELL, 2011). The trial court decided that it would be of best interest that Bell be kept behind bars for an extended period under 53a-35a. Bell appealed to this decision of the court claiming that it had violated his basic constitutional rights and that it was under the jury to decide whether to prolong the sentence rather than the trial court. The court agreed to BellÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s claim that it was indeed unconstitutional and remanded the second part of the case for a new hearing. The remand trial was unsuccessful as the jury failed to come up to a unanimous verdict, so a new trial was ordered. Bell asked for the second charge to be lifted on grounds that it was unconstitutional. On the new trial, both parties presented their justifications however, the jury concluded that there was sufficient evidence that Bell was guilty of crime and should serve a prolong sentence in view of public interest i.e. forty years imprisonment. The caseÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s decision on the first part i.e. the defendant was found guilty of murder and crime was justified as sufficient evidence was provided by the State on the matter. The trial courtÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s decision on the second part was indeed unconstitutional, and it needed the consent of the jury to prolong

Monday, September 23, 2019

Analyzes pages Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Analyzes pages - Essay Example When one considers the role transportation plays in the global dissemination of goods and services, it is but natural to conclude that those nations that constitute the hub of international shipping and road routes are poised to benefit much owing to their geographical location. According to Warf, globalization signifies a Ã¢â‚¬Å"Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ unprecedented growth in interconnectedness, of flows of capital, goods, people and information across those bordersÃ¢â‚¬ ¦ (Warf 271).Ã¢â‚¬  Being geographically located at important points on the international trade routes makes a nation have access to the global goods and services and the commensurate influences they bring in their wake (Warf 284). Thereby, being exposed to the global trading activities, such nations but naturally tend to accrue economic efficiency that is the hallmark of globalization owing to having a ready access to a wide range of goods and services at a low cost, the economies of scale and the competitive advantage that goes with them. Such nations are also more exposed to diverse ideas, philosophies and cultures (Warf 284). Geographically speaking, being the primary producer of a specific resource also makes a nations accrue the fruits of globalization. For instance, considering the concentration of the petroleum industry in the Middle East, the nations in this region are bound to be influenced by global trends and ideas and are relatively more susceptible to globalization. However, the thing that needs to be kept in mind is that many a time geography may also impede globalization. For instance the regions where the transportation routes and communications technologies are not well developed like say the sub-Saharan nations, owing to economic, political, cultural or climatic reasons, may not cull out the benefits of globalization. This is because such regions are not conducive to the free flow of goods and services, people and ideas for globalization is about,

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Political Disputes by 1860 Essay During the 1800s, Americans in the North and South often had conflict but could no longer resolve their political disputes through compromise by the year 1860. In this time period, compromise was not an option because slavery and states rights caused political disputes between the north and south.The two political parties in the north and south lost their ability to cooperate and by the mid 1800s increased the issue of the division of the states. The political view on slavery and states rights grew as compromise between the north and south political parties began to collapse during the mid 19th century. Henry Clay stated that it is impossible for South Carolina to become an independent state. (Doc A) A report of the American Anti-Slavery Society was opposed to slavery naming slave owners as man stealers and believed that slaves should be free. (Doc B) Political compromise was not greatly effected by their belief but the Compromise of 1850 resulted in the Fugitive Slave Law being passed which caused the collapse in the political parties. The issue of slavery continued to increase as compromise slowly disintegrated. Abolitionism increased by the encouragement of Frederick Douglass, a leader, who promoted freedom for all slaves. Also, Uncle Toms Cabin published by Harriet Beecher started up abolitionism in the North while the South to oppose against abolitinists. Senator Daniel Webster who is opposed to secession stated that the North is not complied with the Fugitive Slave Law. (Doc D) In addition, a New York Tribune comparing working class men in the north to southern gentlemen (Doc F) caused more conflict between the states over the issue of slavery. The division of the states over the issue of slavery enhanced the collapse of compromise between the North and South political parties.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

machiavelli :: essays research papers fc

Niccolo Machiavelli Statesman and Political Philosopher 1469 - 1527 No enterprise is more likely to succeed than one concealed from the enemy until it is ripe for execution. Ã¢â‚¬â€Machiavelli from The Art of War I was born on May 3, 1469 in Florence, Italy. I was a political philosopher and diplomat during the Renaissance, and IÃ¢â‚¬â„¢m most famous for my political treatise, The Prince (1513), that has become a cornerstone of modern political philosophy. My life was very interesting. I lived a nondescript childhood in Florence, and mine main political experience in my youth was watching Savanarola from afar. Soon after Savanarola was executed, I entered the Florentine government as a secretary. My position quickly rose, however, and was soon engaging in diplomatic missions. I met many of the important politicians of the day, such as the Pope and the King of France, but none had more impact on me than a prince of the Papal States, Cesare Borgia. Borgia was a cunning, cruel man, very much like the one portrayed in The Prince. I did not truly like Borgia's policies, but I thought that with a ruler like Borgia the Florentines could unite Italy, which was my goal throughout life. Unfortunately for myself, I was dismissed from office when the Medici came to rule Florence and the Republic was overthrown. The lack of a job forced me to switch to writing about politics instead of being active. My diplomatic missions were my last official gove rnment positions. When I lost my office, desperately I wanted to return to politics. I tried to gain the favor of the Medici by writing a book of what I thought were the Medici's goals and dedicating it to them. And so The Prince was written for that purpose. Unfortunately, the Medici didn't agree with what the book said, so I was out of a job. But when the public saw the book, they were outraged. The people wondered how cruel a man could be to think evil thoughts like the ones in The Prince, and this would come back to haunt me when I was alive and dead. However, if the people wanted to know what my self really stood for, they should have read my "Discourses on Livy", which explains my full political philosophy. But not enough people had and have, and so the legacy of The Prince continues to define my person to the general public.