Saturday, August 31, 2019
Early learning and childcare 63 Trafford rd rushden northans nn10 Abigail wignall sh40856/NCC assignment 1 pg1 Task1. 1 From birth to adulthood children continually grow develop and learn,if children do not develop propely they may be unable to reach their full potential. All young people follow a similar pattern of develpoment,however each child is diffrent and may develop at a diffrent rate. There are three areas of development, physical, intellectual,social and emotional. heres is a guide of how they develop for the following age ranges Ã¢â¬Å"taken from study book early learning and childcareÃ¢â¬ . -3yrs physical development by6months a child will: Ã ·turn their head towars sounds and movement Ã ·watch an adults face while feeding Ã ·smile at familar faces and voices Ã ·reach up to hold their feet when lying on their backs Ã ·hold and shake a rattle Ã ·put everythings in their mouths between 6months and 1year Ã ·move from sitting with support to sitting alone Ã ·roll ov er from their tummy to their back Ã ·begin to creep, crawl or shuffle on their bottom Ã ·push on or push against adult hands or furniture to reach a standing position Ã ·raise arms to be lifted Ã ·turn and look up when they hear their name pat and poke objects when playing Ã ·pass objects from hand to hand Ã ·look for things thathave been hidden or dropped Ã ·reaches hand toward source of food Between one and two years Ã ·begin to walk Ã ·sits alone indefinitely Ã ·feed themselves Ã ·push and pull toys while walking Ã ·wave goodbye Ã ·point or make noises to indiacte wants Ã ·enjoy a picture book Ã ·shake head for no Ã ·uses thumb and first two fingers to grip Ã ·crawl upstairs Ã ·stoops to pick things up from floor Ã ·begins to show prefrence for onr hand Ã ·builds tower of few bricks Ã ·holds crayon in palm and makes marks on paper Between two and three Ã ·Kneels to play Ã ·throws kicks ball Ã ·builds larger bruck tower Ã ·pour liquids Ã ·uses pencil to m ake marks and circular scribbles Newborn to three months the social and emotional development should be the child very depdant on adults maily mother for comfort,cuddles and reassurance and the child will quieten while the adults do so. Between six to nine months the child enjoys the company of others and begin to like games such as peek a boo and show affection to known people but shywith strangers at one to two years their social development should extend to play alongside other children also like to please adults and perform to an audience.They may become upset and distressed if seperated from known adults, a object can be used for comfort. By two to three years they should be developing a sense of own identidy and want to do things themselves and demand adult attention and can become reluctant to share be prone to tantrums outburts but also enjoy playing with adults or older children who give attention, and play with others same age for short periods of time. intelectual develop ment between 0-3years should be begining to realise others are seperate beings from ourselves and become more confident but do still require adult reassurance.At 0-3 months language development should be making happy sounds 6-12 months they should be making babbling sounds and begin show feelings by squealing with pleasure, crying or laughing to show enjoyment. one to two years they should be joining words to make sentances and by two be using 50-150 words and start understand conversation and understand keywords. by 2-3 years should be able to put words together to make sentances scribble on paper use several hundread words by three be joining in songs and be asking questionns like how? why?. Physical development at age 3-7years yrs Ã ·jump with feet together Ã ·walk on tip toes Ã ·go up and down the stairs Ã ·catch and thow a ball Ã ·climb Ã ·paint Ã ·thread beads on to laces Ã ·gain controll over eating tools 4years Ã ·throw with aim Ã ·use sccissors Ã ·hold pencil be able draw houses/people 5years Ã ·hop Ã ·skip Ã ·ride bike Ã ·jump from height Ã ·climb confidently Ã ·write Ã ·thread needles Ã ·do laces and buttons (Information found children and young peoples workforce-early learning and childcare 2012) By 3-4years their intellectual development should be as follows, able sort objects into gropus eg colour or size.Understand simple tasks given for example fetch a story book and bring it to mummy. socialy and emotionaly they should have become more independant and self motivated feeling more secure and able cope with unfamilar faces and surroundings for small periods of time. By 4-5years grammar becomes more accurate and their questions become more complex communicating better, able understand books as a source of fun and begin to recoginze wn name and written words theve seen on few occasions, be able form some lettering and begin copying shapes.At age 5-7years they should be handling books well and understand text has meaning, be able make up stories and regonize an increasing number of letters linking them to sound. development at age 7-12 years should be thye child being able to run,hop skip,climb,swing confidently, and start enjoying team games and may misjudge their own abilty before age nine. Social and emotional development at this age range should becoming less dependant on adults nad enjoy being in a group of people at the same age wanting to fit in with the peer rules. They should have an understanding that certain behavoiurs are un acceptable.Begin form close relationships at age eight also becoming more aware of own gender can be bossy or arogant but enjoy playing with others same sex but need adult reassurance and help when comes to arguments in play. Intelecutaly at this age the child should be able to read,write and take an intrest in certain subjects he enjoys by around 9, also be knowing diffrence tenses and grammar,read out loud but may need help tackling complexities of spelling, their vocabular y will grow if adults introduce and encourage new words and ways of using lanuage.At the age 12-19years is said to be the period from childhood to adulthood could start at age 11 and last untill 19-20years. Adolesecnce is a transition period where young people grdually detach themselves from their parents, and form a close group of friends. many physical changes occur at this stage in life, changing their apperance and bodies, coordination and strength increase greatly although every persons rate can be diffrent.Adolesence for boys usually begins later than girls, boys begin to develop sex characteristics like deep voices body hair and muscle growth,testicals and scrotom growth begins in mid puberty penis growth beings a little later but continues growing for a longer period of time. Girls begin breast budding at around age ten, her pubic hair will begin to grow and darken and curl also body begins to to become more round developing curves of womanhood, By 13 some girls can almost b e physicaly mature, also this is average age to bein their menstral cycle this can depend on the age of pubertal onset.By age 15 a girl is most likely to e at her adult height and may have a woman figure but her hips and breasts may become fuller. Lanuage development in teenagers may become imtating but that is there way of testing out there new found language and skills like sarcasam, their logical thinking ability is also growing and maturing they may ut them into pratice by debate either fomaly or infomaly.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Yesterday at 3:30 pm was JonnyÃ¢â¬â¢s last strike as he had shot his mother. This action had only seemed as an accident, but as we confronted him it would only seem as an unlikely act that had taken place because of the objective of the game, or is it? Tune into the rest of this article to find out the real objective behind this setup. The legendary twenty-first century game of paintball co-exists as a way of enlightening the players of the dangers of being at war. The fun loving sport is a thrilling experience one should have if he is able to.The sport requires excellence in agility and the ability to make decisions on a quick note, as well as teamwork risking the life of others. Paintball technology is also used by military forces, law enforcement, Para-military and security organizations to supplement military training, riot response, and non-lethal suppression of dangerous suspects. Jonny Kapalo, the amateur paintball player, from West Kentucky had his eyes set on the joy of sh ooting in the mexcian home grounds of paintball, as one of the best ten places for paintballing.The game started at the crack of dawn when the teams split up. There were the Rottweilers and the meerkats. The players were to play in the paint-stained quagmire. The first game was Ã¢â¬Ëcapture the flagÃ¢â¬â¢ and the meerkats (also known as JonnyÃ¢â¬â¢s team) had a good run since the game was theirs for the taking. The win was won by for his heroic dash for the flag which was quite a cheeky move, as his teammates distracted the adversary by covering for him. The second game was search and destroy, which consisted of four targets.The seekers of the game had a terminator of a man code name the Ã¢â¬ËPredatorÃ¢â¬â¢. The imprudent Jonny took the game as a joke and a couple of his teammates took into account of his plan of shooting the Predator. The error of this childish prank is that the Predator takes no hostiles even if it is caused by mutiny among his own teammates. At the coun t of three, with the predator in front of the scouting group, Jonny and his friends made their move, consequently, the more experienced player got the best of them and JonnyÃ¢â¬â¢s team was disqualified on the account of the uprising to the Predator.The third and final game was the team death match. This game has obvious objectives which are that you get terminated if you run out of paintballs or if you get shot. Each player was low on ammo and the last thing they wanted was to end the game. So each player had to examine their surroundings to look for places that could not be seen by the enemy. Jonny had thought of hiding behind a bush, to stalk his next victim. The unsuspecting detail of his hideout was unseen by the enemy.The next victim was to be his very own mother which was to be the most unlikely person to walk by. The poor woman was shot head to toe with suppressing shots. When she declared herself to be out of the game, Jonny crept back into hiding to wait for his next vic tim. But shortly afterwards the game was over and the Rottweilers won 2-1. We asked a few comments from Jonny and here is what he said, Ã¢â¬Å"The game was a game and I did not know that my mother would come out of cover and I would shoot her which was actually pretty awkward considering how well she could use a gun. JonnyÃ¢â¬â¢s mother had also shared her comments with us on how the game appealed to her. Ã¢â¬Å"The game was quite exciting, as an ex-marine I was born to be on the front line. The experience was a good one and it was great to see Jonny walking up my footsteps. Ã¢â¬ To me as a viewer the game was exhilarating and thrilling to watch, and informs me on the aspects of war and arts. This can stimulate a great experience which cannot be missed if one is able to afford. In my opinion JonnyÃ¢â¬â¢s mother forfeited the win to her son by exposing her cover.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
There is significance in property being classified as probate or nonprobate property in terms of the need for probate, creditorsÃ¢â¬â¢ claims and payment of federal estate and state estate and inheritance taxes is that. If property is classified as probate then that means that it is the decedentÃ¢â¬â¢s property that is subject to estate administration by the personal representative. It also means that the probate property is subject to creditorsÃ¢â¬â¢ claims and federal and state death taxes. Nonprobate property is not subject to probate because it cannot be transferred by will or inheritance. The nonprobate property goes straight to the named beneficiary or to the surviving joint tenant(s) or partners. Nonprobate property is part of the decedentÃ¢â¬â¢s gross estate for federal and state death tax purposes; it is subject to federal and state estate taxes and state inheritance tax. 27. Joint tenancy is different from both tenancy in common and a tenancy by the entirety. Joint tenancy is different from tenancy in common because joint tenancy is the ownership of real or personal property by two or more persons with the right of survivorship; whereas, tenancy in common is the ownership of an undivided interest of real or personal property by two or more persons without the right of survivorship. In a tenancy in common, each person has the right to hold or occupy the whole property in common with the other co-tenants, and each is entitled to share in the profits derived from the property. Unlike a joint tenancy, when a tenancy in common dies, the decedentÃ¢â¬â¢s interest goes to an heir or as directed in a will. Joint tenancy is unlike tenancy by the entirety. Tenancy by the entirety is a form of joint tenancy with the right of survivorship available only to a husband and wife. It cannot be terminated by one joint tenantÃ¢â¬â¢s inter vivos conveyance of his or her interest. Neither one of the tenants by the entirety can transfer the property or sever the tenancy by the entirety without the consent of the other spouse. 28. There are four unities required for the creation of a joint tenancy. Those unities are: unity of interest, unity of title, unity of time, and unity of possession. For unity of interest to exist, each tenant must have an interest in the property identical with that of the other tenants; the interests must be of the same quantity and duration. For unity of title to exist, the tenancy must be created and the tenants must receive their title from a single source, e.g., the same will or deed. For unity of time to exist, joint tenant owners must receive or take their interests in the property together, i.e., at the same time. Finally, for unity of possession to occur, each joint tenant must own and hold the same undivided possession of the whole property held in joint tenancy. 29. An ancillary administration is necessary if at death the decedent-testator owns any real property in a state other than his domiciliary state, and any tangible personal property in another state. The purpose of ancillary administration is to dispose of and distribute that portion of the decedentÃ¢â¬â¢s estate located in a state other than the decedentÃ¢â¬â¢s domiciliary state. 30. Community property is all property, other than property received by gift, will, or inheritance, acquired by either spouse during marriage that is considered to belong to both spouses equal in the nine community property states and Alaska if community property is elected. Things that would not be community property includes property received by gift, will or inheritance that are acquired by either spouse during marriage, property individually owned by the husband or wife before their marriage, property that is currently separate property and is traded, replaced, or sold for other property and becomes Ã¢â¬Å"newÃ¢â¬ separate property, and lastly, social security, railroad retirement, and veteranÃ¢â¬â¢s benefits.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
What success mean - Essay Example An individual feels successful after he/she has achieved what he/she wanted to. But the success lasts only as long as its happiness does. A person who might have got various successes in life in the past may at a later point in time, feel as if he is the biggest loser around. The reason is that at that point in time, the person is not feeling happy. Many people that we consider successful do not think they are successful themselves because they are not happy. People generally define success in terms of money. They say that the richer a person is, the more successful he/she is. But the reality is; it takes much more than money to be successful. People can buy things with money, but they cannot buy happiness. As long as they have everything except happiness, no body is successful. If success meant being rich, all the rich men in the history of the world to date would be respected and loved, and most importantly, would have themselves lived a very happy and prosperous life. But not many rich people have all these blessings in life. A large number of the rich people are patients of depression and many even commit suicides. They have everything but one i.e. happiness. Hence, to be successful, one needs to be happy. Last but not the least, since I have a firm belief in God and the world hereafter, I believe that to be really successful means to be placed in heaven in the world hereafter. But what does one want to be placed in the heaven for? Obviously, happiness! The much we know about heaven today is all that can make one happy. In the heaven, we wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be rich; there would be no question of money or social status whatsoever. But we would have everything we want at our disposal which would make us happy. Concluding, success is essentially a state of mind i.e. happiness. Since happiness is a state of mind that every individual feels at different points in time irrespective of the socioeconomic status, anybody
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Summary of America's 1 percent problem - Essay Example vel of inequality in the American society is evident in the income of CEOs vis-a-vis the income of the average worker which stood at a ratio of 243: 1 in 2010 (Stiglitz, 2012, 3). While the top one percent are growing richer by the day, the poor are getting poorer even as the middle class continues to shrink. The problem is so grave that the middle class and the poor are driven toward living in poverty and without a safety net. Furthermore, the level of inequality is so great that economic insecurity even among workers is a reality. While many people believe that the U.S. is a land of opportunities to the extent that poverty is foreign to it, this is not the case according to Stiglitz (2012). He notes that apart from the levels of unemployment, poverty, and economic insecurity being high in the U.S., the standard of living is, in fact, on a decline (14). While several countries including Brazil have made strides to bridge the gap of inequality, the U.S. has done nothing in to reverse the
Monday, August 26, 2019
Contracts and Employment Agreements - Essay Example There are exceptions that have become a trend and offer a lot of fortification to at will discharge. These trends comprise public policy, implied contracts and implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing. I understand that, in public policy, employees need a Ã¢â¬Å"just causeÃ¢â¬ for discharge. They need the same to guarantee managerial processes that define whether there is an unbiased cause for discharge. Implied contract entails all that an employee has done in a company, those that show good reputation. It is more significant in employees that have served for a long time without facing lots of critics. On the other hand, implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing comprehensively entails insincerity in a contract. This is vivid when an individual employee does what is in contrary to the laws stipulated in the signed agreement.There is a group of people that are basically not subjects to the earlier stated rule, Ã¢â¬Å"at-willÃ¢â¬ . This includes contractors and union ized workers, of which Barnes is one. In trying to argue cases that find them, there are certain exceptions that come in an implied contract. As it is indicated in the study, in chapter seven, there is a mode of acceptance that should be followed to the latter in a contract (Gibson & Lindley, 2010). These require adequacy in consideration, in order to explicate the mode of contracts. Arguments arise when Barnes and Pentrix go to court. To justify himself, one of the parties, Barnes says what he was told during an interview.
Lean thinking - questions - Term Paper Example In addition, human relations require understanding the market requirements (Womack & Jones, 2010). All strategies employed in the organization should aim at acquiring the quality and quantity as demanded by the consumer. Consequently, this should be done to minimize the production of goods and services that would not require improvement upon delivery to the consumer. In an argument by Womack & Jones (2010) human relations in lean thinking aim at maximizing the production process of the organization at a lower cost but matching the demand of the consumer. The authors further point out that lean thinking significantly depends on effective human relations strategies to minimize risks that may arise from the fluctuating demand levels (Womack & Jones, 2010). In an organization, flow promoting tools and practices are required. A fallow promoting tool refers to the ability of an organization top put in place strategies to ensure the entire of process from production to product delivery is effectively carried out. The main tool and practice flow-promoting tool is a good management team (Womack & Jones, 2010). This ensures that there is the creation and management of an effective organization culture. The organizational culture should promote employee productivity and maximize on the resources available to the organization. In the transformation of the GM car factory, the changes made were in the conduct of employee (Liker, 2004). Prior to the change, the employee culture could not match the quality demanded by the consumers. Employee reported to work late. There were numerous cases of drug and substance abuse. Other cases reported included sexual incidences and sabotaging quality of vehicles created (Liker, 2004). For this reason, the company produced cars that were detested by the market. Considering the competition of the industry, the organization recorded poor sales at it moved towards bankruptcy. Before its taking over by
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Exam 2 - Term Paper Example Learning by human beings may be a result of training, education, schooling, or personal growth. Psychology studies how learning occurs in various contexts of life. Additionally, learning may be a result of observation, classical conditioning, and operant conditioning. This paper will look at how amateur soccer players learn to be better players than they are in regard to the three learning approaches. Three students, John, Peter, and James, had just joined high school. The three were extremely passionate about soccer and had the desire to join the school soccer team. John, Peter, and James frequently attended the teamÃ¢â¬â¢s training sessions. The level of skill and performance of the team were greater than what the three students had, but they were still eager to join. John improved as a player through observational learning, Peter improved through classical conditioning, and James through operant conditioning. Observational learning occurs as a result of observation, retention, a nd replication of another personÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior, in most cases a role model. For behavior to be imitated, the observer should pay attention to the behavior of his or her role model. Additionally, the observer should retain the behavior in the memory and finally replicate what he or she had learned from the model. The observer should have the skill to reproduce the modelÃ¢â¬â¢s action. ... stimulus, which brings forth an expected response; unconditioned response, which is a natural response to the unconditioned stimulus; conditioned stimulus formed after the association between a neutral stimulus and unconditioned stimulus; and conditioned response, the learned response to the earlier stimulus that was neutral. Whenever Peter saw soccer balls (Unconditioned Stimulus) during the training sessions, his urge to practice would increase (Unconditioned Response). Moreover, when he would hear a whistle (Conditioned Stimulus) being blown, he would feel like going (Conditioned Response) to the pitch to play. On the other hand, operant conditioning entails increasing or decreasing the probability of behavior due to the outcome. It involves a stimulus, response, and reinforcement (Ormrod 123). James attended every training session with the aim of improving and getting a place in the team. Whenever he completed tasks (response) in training, the coach would praise (reinforcement) h im. This made him improve his skills and general performance. Several brain parts assist in the process of learning. There are those that control learning parts and those involved in the same learning parts. Storage of information is a must for learning to be conducted. The temporal lobe organizes information, speech, and memory. It helps in retrieving memory, images, and accurate information. The amygdala helps in the organization and storage of emotion related memories. It also determines the memories to be stored and organizes all the memories storage. The hippocampus helps in creating memories that are new. It makes concepts and fits experiences into the concepts. The frontal lobe solves problems, judgment, memory, language, and personality control. Skills to solve problems and think
Saturday, August 24, 2019
The last lecture by Randy pausch - Movie Review Example First, he started by telling that he was to talk about other things but not cancer, his wife and so forth. These are the things he was known to talk about in his speeches. Therefore, by doing this, he shows his audience that he can venture into other issues of a common good. This way also, he changed his audiencesÃ¢â¬â¢ attitude towards life by tracing his childhood dreams and encouraging young people to dream. He also narrated to his audience his experiences when enabling dreams of others by impacting knowledge and skills to them. Pausch uses jokes, audience engagement and life experience episodes, anecdotes and dramatic pauses to relate to his objectives of changing peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s attitudes and acknowledging his contribution to the world. To connect with his audience in hundreds, Pausch makes sure he engages his audience and clears tensions by resorting to; for instance series of push-ups on stage (Pausch 3 -5). Some of the techniques he uses like humor are natural to him, but some techniques like performing push-ups and constant microphone adjustment are intentional and meant to make the show lively. Yes, I was moved when he mentioned about his cancer issue and demonstrated his hope when he acquired a new home for his family to stay in, when he dies. With the freedom of speech, any person is justified to share his or her experiences provided doing this does not interfere with rights of others. There are no dangers as far as one is within the guidelines. Most portions of the program were on top of me especially the parts where he made compelling comparisons, humor and dramatic pauses. According to Pausch, a Ã¢â¬Å"head fakeÃ¢â¬ is a method of teaching where learners is taught something by making them assume they are learning something else. For example, teaching students programming and making them assume they are making movies and games. The two Ã¢â¬Å"head fakesÃ¢â¬ that Pausch talks about in his lecture are indirect learning and
Friday, August 23, 2019
Risperidone and the Treatment of Schizophrenia - Essay Example Therefore, this literature review proposes addressing the following: Background: Use and Mechanisms: Risperidone is the most widely recommended, second-generation antipsychotic medication for schizophrenia. It blocks excess of dopamine type 2 and serotonin 5-HT2 receptors, and lack of H1 histanminergic, and alpha 2 adrenergic receptors on nerves which cause schizophrenia, by binding to the receptors (Curran & Keating, 2006; Love & Conley, 2004; Pajonk, 2004; Robson & Gray, 2007). Therefore, risperidone has effective clinical outcomes in the treatment of schizophrenia. It is more effective in reducing positive symptoms and more directly effective in decreasing the negative symptoms than the typical antipsychotics (Parjonk, 2003). Also, in a study by Marder (cited in Parjonk, 2003), it was shown that the rate of relapse and rehospitalisation of patients receiving long-term risperidone therapy is much lower than those treated with typical, and other atypical antipsychotics. In addition, it has more significantly beneficial effects on the reduction of af fective symptoms, cognitive symptoms, and the improvement of patients' quality of life compared with typical antipsychotics. ... Therefore, patients with schizoaffective disorders can be improved rapidly by the use of risperidone. Compared with typical antipsychotics, risperidone has a lower risk of adverse effects. In the investigation by Csernansky, Mahmoud, & Brenner (cited in Parjonk, 2003), it was proved that incidents of extrapyramidal side effects (EPSs) of risperidone are more reduced than those experienced with haloperidol. In particular, there is no relationship between cardiac arrest and use of risperidone; therefore, it is safer and more tolerable, reducing the cardiac risk factors. Side Effects of the Use of Risperidone, Expressed in the Literature: In spite of the numerous beneficial effects on risperidone for patients with schizophrenia, adverse effects continue to be a considerable issue relevant to its use. The most recurrent side effects are dizziness, somnolence, insomnia, agitation, and psychosis (Curran & Keating, 2006; Love & Conley, 2004). Also, weight gain is an important side effect, which can lead to diabetes. One of the most highlighted potential adverse effects of higher dose risperidone is EPSs, such as acute dystonia, akathisia, Parkinsonism and TD. In particular; TD can contribute to dysfunction and disturbance of a patient's quality of life, such as social isolation (Courey, 2007). TD is evidenced by abnormal uncontrolled movements of face, mouth, lips, trunk and limbs, such as facial tics, tongue thrusts and rocking trunk, caused by long-term antipsychotics use. Studies have shown that prolonged use of antipsychotic medications such as rispe ridone may induce TD. It was believed that the relationship between risperidone and TD is due to the abnormal production or excessive growth of dopamine receptors, and highly active atoms which then damage
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Old Folks Homes Essay When considering the nursing home option for parents or other loved ones, here are a few of the main advantages to keep to mind: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Better resources and equipment: Private homes simply dont have the types of medical equipment and supplies needed to help seniors stay healthy. Many nursing homes are almost as advanced as hospitals in their ability to provide sophisticated care for patients on a 24-hour basis. Ã¢â¬ ¢ High-quality long-term care: Due to modern medicine, seniors now live longer than ever. While were thankful for this, longer life-spans often come with longer periods of late-life illness and disability. Caring for a senior relative at home is often a long-term commitment of many years, sometimes requiring intensive care. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Emergency response and 24-hour monitoring: Nursing homes are equipped to deal with emergencies and other sudden incidents. Internal call systems allow residents to contact staff at any time should something arise. These systems are monitored 24 hours, and experienced staff is always on hand to respond. Lighter emotional burden on family: When an elderly relative being cared for at home experiences suffering, a sudden emergency, or a decline in health, family members are liable to feel guilt and to wonder if they could have done more. Putting the elderly relative in the hands of professionals makes this issue nonexistent. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Family can live their own lives: While we want to help our relatives as much as possible, we also must think of ourselves, our spouses, and our children. Caring for an elderly relative at home can be a time-consuming process for everyone involved, which may take time and energy away from careers, school, hobbies, family bonding, travel, and other important personal matters. If our elderly relative can be just as happy and healthy, if not more so, in a home, why not take the burden off of ourselves? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Social opportunities: Socially, seniors need more than just family. At nursing homes, seniors are out in the world interacting with a variety of people. Other residents provide a chance to form new friendships with others in the same age group. Meanwhile, strong, personal relationships may also be developed with staff members. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Activities: Nursing homes routinely provide the types of activities and, in some cases, outings that are specifically tailored to seniors, and which may not be available in private homes. Nursing homes usually provide movies, reading material, games, activities, and other types of events. In addition, they often have private gardens where residents can go for strolls, get resh air, and even do some gardening. The nursing home is a facility created with a precise role ,in the medical care for elderly . In this facility are admitted the patients discharge from hospital. After the discharge from the hospital,the recovery process continue for a period of time in the nursing home. Being equipped for physical therapy,and speech therapy,the patient with stroke has an appropriate place to recover. After surgery for fracture of the hip,the motor recovery is better than in home. For a limited period of time the admission in nursing home,can be handle by the family and aging patient,in the interest of both sides. Many times the family makes opposition at the recommendation for transfer from hospital to nursing home. Even today,we meet a misconception about the reputation of nursing homes. Everybody can be in the aging process candidate for admission as resident in nursing home. In these days when the younger people in the family are busy with their job and family,less and less make an effort to keep the elderly parent in home. For elderly parents,changing his environment can be devastating. I knew many aging people who were admitted in the nursing home , because the family,couldnt do an appropriate arrangement for them. Several aspects in the health status of admitted aging patient in nursing home,can be observed and avoided. In the majority of patients,was noted a clear refuse to be admitted in nursing home. If the patient was admitted,the emotional reaction was painful for the family and patient. The patient came withdrawn,refuse to communicate with staff. When the family came for visit,the patient hostility and lack of understanding of the family,aggravated their relationship. The patient develop feeling of abandon from the family. Sometimes they express paranoid manifestations,believing that the family wanted to take over their assets. The patient is unable to communicate with other residents in nursing home. Many times ,in their paranoid behavior,include the staff of nursing home. They believe that the family and the nursing home,conspire ,to steal the assets. Among the other changes in behavior and emotional status,often the other residents or staff,report:refuse to eat and drink,Decline to take the medication. Refuse to have the daily body care. Their sleep is also disturbed. In short period of time,the physical condition is deteriorating. Possibility to catch intra facility infections is very high possibility. These are only several aspects related to the elderly admitted in nursing home. The majority of statistics,showed that a patient admitted in this facilities,have a rate of survival shorter,comparatively with elderly living in their own residence. The best place to live is the residence where is well known for aging people. They know where are the daily tools used for grooming. Any changes in their environment can have emotional reaction. They can be confused,unable to behave like before,having premature manifestations of dementia. The family of elderly parents,have to be aware about all physical and mental changes of the aging parents. An appropriate care can avoid unpleasant situations and all consequences of changing the own residence with the nursing home.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Evaluate the Effectiveness of Business Information Essay PepsiCo Inc. is an American multinational food and beverage corporation headquartered in Purchase, New York, United States, with interests in the manufacturing, marketing and distribution of grain-based snack foods, beverages, and other products. PepsiCo was formed in 1965 with the merger of the Pepsi-Cola Company and Frito-Lay, Inc. PepsiCo has since expanded from its namesake product Pepsi to a broader range of food and beverage brands, the largest of which include an acquisition of Tropicana in 1998 and a merger with Quaker Oats in 2001Ã¢â¬âwhich added the Gatorade brand to its portfolio. P5 DESCRIBE THE INFLUENCE OF TWO CONTRASTING ECONOMIC ENVIROMENTS ON BUSINESS ACTIVITIES WITHIN A SELECTED ORGANISATION. KENYA Kenya officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in East Africa that lies on the equator. With the Indian to its south-east, it is bordered by Tanzania to the south, Uganda to the west, South Sudan to the north-west, Ethiopia to the north and Somalia to the north-east. Kenya has a land area of 580,000 km2 and a population of a little over 43 million residents. The country is named after Mount Kenya, a significant landmark and second among Africas highest mountain peaks. Its capital and largest city is Nairobi. INDIA India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the south-west, and the Bay of Bengal on the south-east, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west;[d] China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north-east; and Burma and Bangladesh to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; in addition, Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia. Economic factors affecting PepsiCo: Unemployment: Kenya recorded its ultimate high level of unemployment in 2011 reaching 40% unemployment. This would affect PepsiCo in the following ways: Ã¢â¬ ¢ The demand of goods will decrease, because consumers will no longer have money to spend. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Total revenue will decrease due to lack of purchases by a customers Ã¢â¬ ¢ However government may decrease tax in order to encourage businesses to employ more. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The public will be desperate for jobs and therefore will be willing to settle for a lower paying job Ã¢â¬ ¢ The*re will be a lower chance of staff turnover. Unemployment rate has decreased significantly in the past year this could affect the business in the following ways: Ã¢â¬ ¢ People will be willing to spend more on PepsiCoÃ¢â¬â¢s products thus increasing total revenue. Ã¢â¬ ¢ There will be a rise in demand thus increasing profit. Ã¢â¬ ¢ PepsiCo can now expand and will not have to worry about workforce Ã¢â¬ ¢ However, staff may demand higher salaries as they see many other opportunities opening up Ã¢â¬ ¢ There is a high chance of staff turnover. Inflation rate Inflation occurs when there is a general rise in the price of goods in the whole economy The inflation rate in Kenya was recorded at 3.25 percent in November of 2012. Inflation Rate in Kenya is reported by the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. Historically, from 2005 until 2012, Kenya Inflation Rate averaged 12.5 Percent reaching an all-time high of 31.5 Percent in May of 2008 and a record low of 3.2 Percent in October of 2010. In Kenya, the inflation rate measures a broad rise or fall in prices that consumers pay for a standard basket of goods. This means that: Ã¢â¬ ¢ the capital Pepsi uses for buying raw materials is reducing due to a fall in prices Ã¢â¬ ¢ Staff will no longer be too concerned about their real value of their income. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Consumers will now be able to afford better established labels like Pepsi. Ã¢â¬ ¢ However, because of the general decrease in prices, Pepsi may not be able to justify any price increase. The inflation rate in India was recorded at 7.45 percent in October of 2012. Inflation Rate in India is reported by the Ministry of Statistics and Program Implementation. Historically, from 1969 until 2012, India Inflation Rate averaged 7.8 Percent reaching an all-time high of 34.7 Percent in September of 1974 and a record low of -11.3 Percent in May of 1976. In India, the inflation rate measures a broad rise or fall in prices that consumers pay for a standard basket of goods inflation rate in India is high this means that: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Staff will become concerned about their real income high wage demands are likely and there could be an increase in industrial disputes. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Consumers are likely to become more prices sensitive and look for bargains rather than big names causing revenue to decrease. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The living standard will drop, therefore PepsiCo will have to reduce prices or risk losing their customers. Ã¢â¬ ¢ However, consumers will make purchases faster fearing that prices will rise even more. Interest Rate The benchmark interest rate in India was last recorded at 8 percent. Interest Rate in India is reported by the Reserve Bank of India. Historically, from 2000 until 2012, India Interest Rate averaged 6.5 Percent reaching an all-time high of 14.5 Percent in August of 2000 and a record low of 4.3 Percent in April of 2009. This will affect pepsi in the following ways: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Pepsi will be unable to borrow and therefore will have to cut down on cost thus producing less Ã¢â¬ ¢ Pepsi will be unable to expand if they are not willing to pay 8%. Ã¢â¬ ¢ However, if pepsi feels like the 8% is within their budget then they would probably be safe to borrow seing as the rates are stable. The benchmark interest rate in Kenya was last recorded at 11 percent. Interest Rate in Kenya is reported by the Central Bank of Kenya. Historically, from 1991 until 2012, Kenya Interest Rate averaged 15.1 Percent reaching an all-time high of 84.7 Percent in July of 1993 and a record low of 0.8 Percent in September of 2003. In Kenya, interest rates decisions are taken by The Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) of the Central Bank of Kenya. This will affect pepsi in the following ways: Ã¢â¬ ¢ It will cause a fall in production. Ã¢â¬ ¢ It will cause a faal in profits due to controlled spending. Ã¢â¬ ¢ However interest rates are likely to fall as we can see from the gragh above. Comparison of the economy in both India and Kenya both the Kenyan and indian economy are recovering from an economic crunch. If you compare the inflation rates of Kenya and india with their respective interest rates they correspond. This is because when inflation is high, the government needs to control spending and to do this, they need to increase interest inorder to encourage spending
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Forecasting Inventory Needs For Home Depot Stores Nationwide Commerce Essay Forecasting is one of the most important aspects of any business that wants to maintain its competitive advantage. The Home Depot uses the gross national product (GNP) to forecast its demand for inventory. Due to the current state of the housing market, The Home Depot is finding it difficult to properly forecast inventory stocks resulting in a surplus of unsold goods and missed sales opportunities due to lack of other merchandise This paper will briefly describe some of the different techniques and methods used to forecast. There will be two courses of actions (COAs) developed. One will be recommended over the other and an implementation plan will be presented. Forecasting Inventory Needs for Home Depot Stores Nationwide Introduction The Home Depot is a multi-international organization with brick-and-mortar stores in the United States, Canada, Mexico, and China. The current state of the United States economy has been detrimental to many organizations. The Home Depot bases its inventory needs on the housing market. Recently the housing market has been fluctuating in an unpredictable manner. This becomes a concern for organizations that base their inventory needs on it. Improper inventory stocks can be a detriment whether it is overstocked or under stock. If inventory is under stocked organizations may lose potential business to competitors due to an inability to keep up with demand. Overstock causes an issue with costs associated with storage of unsold merchandise and can tie up much needed capital. Problem Statement Due to the current state of the housing market, The Home Depot is finding it difficult to properly forecast inventory stocks resulting in a surplus of unsold goods and missed sales opportunities due to lack of other merchandise. NOTE: BACKGROUND CONTENT SHOULD BE THE LITERATURE REVIEW. LIT REVIEW CONTENT SHOULD BE THE BACKGROUND. IM NOT SEEING MANY OF THE MANAGEMENT TOPICS INTEGRATED INTO EITHER SECTION. YOU MENTIONED SEVERAL OF THE TOPICS JUST AS YOU STARTED THE LIT REVIEW, BUT YOU ONLY MENTIONED THEM THIS IS NOT GOOD ENOUGH. YOU HAVE TO WRITE SOMETHING ABOUT THEM THAT WOULD BRING VALUE TO THE SUBJECT OF YOU PAPER. Background A forecast is a statement about the future. Many businesses use forecasting in an effort to squeeze every last drop of profit out of a situation. The Home Depot, for example, bases sales forecast on mortgage refinancing rates. Usually the smaller rates are at any given time in history will equate to higher sales. There are many different uses of forecast. Forecast can be used for accounting, finance, human resources, marketing, management information systems, operations, and product or service design to name a few. While forecasts are instrumental to an organizations financial future they are rarely perfect due to the randomness of the variables involved. The accuracy of forecasts themselves decrease as the time horizon of forecast increases. For example, the Home Depot can forecast sales for this year more accurately than they can for next year. There are many different elements of the forecast that would be considered good. In order for a forecast to be considered good the forecast would have to be timely, reliable, accurate, meaningful, and easy to use. According to Stevenson, there are two main uses for forecasts. The first is to assist managers with planning the system and the second is to assist them plan the use of the system (Stevenson, 2001). What is meant by planning the system is just that. It is a means to plan the system that involves long-range plans such as what products or services to offer as well as what equipment to buy and where to build facilities and things of that nature. According to Stevenson, planning the use of the system generally refers to the short-range and intermediate range which typically involves things such as planning the budget, scheduling, short-term goals, the needs of the investor, inventory, etc. Forecasting for business goes far beyond just forecasting the demand of products and services. It also includes being able to predict profits, revenue, availability of raw materials and many other variables. The Home Depot, being a home improvements store, must also be able to predict things such as th e housing market. There are certain features that are common to all of the different forecasting techniques. One of the main commonalities of forecasting is that no one has a crystal ball, and no one can see into the future; therefore forecasts are far from perfect. No one can predict precisely how often a large number of related factors will impinge upon the variable in question, this, and the presence of randomness, preclude a perfect forecast (Stevenson, 2001). Another commonality to all forecasting techniques is that forecast accuracy will become less accurate as time moves on, an example of this is given above, due to the fact that forecasting errors for group items will have a canceling effect upon themselves. For example, the Home Depot can forecast the sales goals of a particular department better than the sales goal of an individual product. According to Stevenson (2001) six basic steps are involved in the forecasting process shown in Table 1. Note: I would put these steps in a Table. Label it Table 1. Paraphrase the content. Step One Determine the purpose of forecast (Stevenson, 2001). One must know the reason behind forecasting in the first place. If a person is forecasting how many individuals will show up to a bake sale as opposed to how many pallets of shingles need to be urgent in order to facilitate demand at any given time, knowing the purpose will justify the level of accuracy that is necessary. Step Two Establish a time horizon (Stevenson, 2001). One must have a time horizon in their forecast, one must also realize that the accuracy of the forecast will diminish as the time horizon increases. Step Three Choose a forecasting technique (Stevenson, 2001). Once again there are numerous amounts of forecasting techniques that are being used today. It is extremely important for the forecaster to choose one that will best suit the needs of the forecast. Step Four Gather and analyze relevant data (Stevenson, 2001). Before beginning any daunting task one must gather all relevant information that one needs in order to put it all together and make sense of it. In this stage the forecaster must also identify any assumptions that are made while preparing using forecast. Step Five Prepare the forecast (Stevenson, 2001). In this step one would use whichever technique that was decided in order to prepare the forecast for monitoring. Step Six Monitor the forecast (Stevenson, 2001). The forecast is similar to that of any automated program and therefore will need to be monitored. The reason that the forecast needs to be monitored is because it is not performing in the way that it should be, the forecaster needs to go back re-examine the data and make any relevant changes in order to keep the forecast on the straight and narrow path. If the forecast is not performing in a satisfactory manner certain assumptions couldve been overlooked or completely wrong. In either case the forecaster must then prepare a revised forecast Literature Review Inventory management is one of the key issues faced by managers that deal with seasonal products. It is important to understand how product forecasting has been previously used. As technology advances and globalization continues to be on the rise, keeping up with supply and demand becomes a challenge. Businesses need to learn how to create a supply chain advantage. In this section demand forecasting, demand learning, and product lifecycle forecasting methods will be discussed. Six rules for effective forecasting will also be included. Demand Forecast According to Huang, Chang, and Chou (2006), the first step in finding precise demand forecast is to collect and organize complete and applicable historical demand data for any given product. Demand of this nature can be issued daily, weekly, monthly, or yearly depending on the time within the planning window. The process of modeling demand and determining demand forecasts is as follows: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦demand data, demand analysis, demand forecast model, perimeter estimation, demand simulation, demand forecast, and expected demand (Huang et al, 2006). There are two aspects of forecasting that are vital. The first is the expected level of demand, the second is the degree of accuracy that can be assigned to a forecast. Demand Learning Demand learning is one of the inventory models that has received considerable attention in the literature. Herbert Scarf is one of the first authors to incorporate demand learning in an inventory modeling context. In his literature, Bayes Solution of the Statistical Inventory Problem, he developed an interesting inventory model that uses observed demand information and a current stock level together in the decision process. It is his assumption that demand is generated from an exponential class of distributions, and a collaboration of prior distributions are used for the unknown parameters (Scarf, 1958). For seasonal demand forecasting a Quick Response policy was adopted by many manufacturers. This procedure was developed in an effort to reduce a manufacturers production time to respond to orders in a timelier manner so that forecast can be improved by collecting more information about the future demand. Suri (2004) studied the Quick Response policy extensively. According to his lite rature, there are four core concepts of quick response manufacturing: The Power of Time, Organizational Structure, Understanding and Exploiting System Dynamics, and Enterprise-wide Unified Strategy. Product Lifecycle Forecasting Method Burruss (2002) describes the product lifecycle forecasting method. He used this method to propose a way to more accurately forecast products with high uncertainty and a short lifecycle. According to Burruss, a short lifecycle ranges anywhere from 9 months to 18 months. According to the literature, products forecasted using this method, should have well defined lifecycle phases from introduction to maturity and then to end-of-life, a high demand spike during the introduction phase, which is then followed by a gradual downward leveling off during maturity, and a steep end-of-life drop-off that is usually caused by planned product rollovers (Burruss, 2002). Six Rules for Effective Forecasting Paul Saffo describes the difference between prediction and forecasting. He says that prediction deals with future certainty while forecasting looks at how events in the present are influential to the possible changes in direction (Saffo, 2007). In his literature he describes six simple rules for effective forecasting that managers should observe as they develop forecasting policies (Saffo, 2007). The first rule is to define a cone of uncertainty. According to the literature, the cone of uncertainty is used to help managers exercise strategic judgment. The most important part of the cone of uncertainty is defining its breadth, which is a measure of overall uncertainty (Saffo, 2007). The second rule is to look for the S-curve. Saffo explains that change does not usually follow a straight line. It is important to see and identify an S-curve pattern once it begins (Saffo, 2007). Rule three is to embrace the things that do not fit. A successful forecaster will be able to look to the left of an S-curve inflection point and notice indicators of what is to come. However, sometimes there are items to the left of the S-curve inflection point that simply do not fit. It is the job of the forecaster to recognize those items and adjust the forecast appropriately. The fourth rule is to hold strong opinions weakly. Here, Saffo is saying that one of the largest mistakes a forecaster will make is to rely on one piece of information, which at the time seems extremely strong due to the fact that it reinforces the conclusion that the forecaster had previously. According to the literature, more weak information, bits and pieces, put together is more trustworthy than a single source of strong information. Rule five says look back twice as far as you look forward. This rule is a continuation of rules two and three. One must know ones history before they can effectively expect future outcomes. One of the hardest parts of looking in history is to know when it does not fit. Rule six, the last rule, is to know when not to make a forecast. There are certain times when forecasting is easy and sometimes when it is just not possible. Saffo uses the dot com bubble of the 1990s as an example of this rule. Forecasters suggested that at the time that old rules did not apply when in fact they were extremely prevalent and the old economic imperatives bursts the dot com bubble (Saffo, 2007). Discussion As stated above there are many different types of forecasting methods that may be used. Moon and Mentzer (2004) describe a time series technique as only looking at patterns of the history of actual sales. The time series technique will look and determine whether the patterns that are prevalent at the time can be projected into the future. This will be the basis of the forecast. All time series techniques examine one or more of four time series patterns, which include level, trend, seasonality, and noise (Moon Mentzer, 2004). Research by Moon and Mentzer (2004) suggest that the level is a horizontal sales history, or what the sales pattern would be if there were no trend, seasonality, or noise. Most forecasters use the level as the starting point for the time series and look at the other patterns later. In Figure 1 that follows, the data follows a horizontal pattern around mean. Figure 1. Title (Note: All tables and figures must carry a number and a title. This does not mean anything because you gave no legend. What is the X axis? What is the Y axis? What do the numbers represent. ) The way the line moves up and down as sales increase or decrease or curve or remain a straight line is what is considered the trend. Most businesses will prefer a trend that is always increasing; however, this is usually not the case. The trend is essentially the bread-and-butter of any forecast. It allows forecasters to be able to determine what is working and what is not, and present this information to management in an effort to mitigate future loss. In Figure 2 that follows, the data is progressively increasing which shows a trend. Note: So trends are based on data? You never really said that. Here you have to introduce Figure 2 and title it. You cannot just stick a graphic in and say nothing about it. Figure 2. Title (Note: You need to include a legend.) Seasonality is described by Moon and Mentzer (2004) as a repeating pattern of sales increases and decreases that occurs within a one-year period or less. For example, the Home Depot experiences high sales every fall for snow blowers, high sales of lawnmowers during the spring, and high sales every summer for air-conditioners. The pattern of these high sales during those periods within the year typically repeat themselves every year and therefore, the seasonality line can be seen as a regular pattern. Figure 3 that follows represents a seasonal pattern. The data exhibits a regularly repeating pattern. (Note: Same comment. You need to title and provide a legend.) Figure 3. Title Noise is the unexplained phenomena that occurs in forecasts. These phenomena usually seem unexplainable until a regression analysis or similar has been conducted. For example if the Home Depot were to have high sales of lawnmowers in the winter months, that would be considered noise. The high sales of lawnmowers can be explained possibly by global warming (unusually warm weather in the winter months), a fire sale of lawnmowers during these months, or some other explanation. The fact is that high sales of that product are unusual and have not happened consistently in the past years and therefore is considered noise. The Figure 4 shows how noise would appear on a chart. There is an inconsistency in the pattern. Figure 4. Title Insert Legend Management Concepts There are many different techniques and approaches when it comes to management. However while dealing with a forecast, managers are faced with more decision-making attributes. In order for any organization to be successful it all starts with being able to properly manage not only personnel, but also the other aspects of the business. In the military, soldiers are taught to lead by example. They are taught very early on to Be, Know, Do. Be the individual that you want your soldiers to be, know all of the required information before presenting it to a subordinate, and do what is morally and ethically right at all times regardless of the situation in which one might find themselves (Hesselbein Shinseki, 2004). You need a citation for this information. Not sure the military example is relevant. Li (2007) describes supply change management as a set of synchronized decisions and activities utilized to efficiently integrate suppliers, manufacturers, warehouses, transporters, retailers, and customers so that the right product or service is distributed in the right quantities, to the right locations, and at the right time, in order to minimize system wide costs while satisfying customer service level requirements. The Home Depot is an industry that ranks inventory in the top five business costs. Oversupply and undersupply of inventory at any given moment could have an extremely detrimental impact on the corporation. Establishing the right amount of product through effective forecasting will ensure that the Home Depot has the products customers need when they want them. This will also mitigate the overstock costs for storage of unsold goods. Economic Environment The current economic environment in the United States is bleak to say the least. As of the writing of this paper there is a high unemployment rate of 7.9% and a slow growth of the United States economy. Growth in the previous year has been at an extremely slow pace. Home sales directly impact inventory needs of the Home Depot. Total sales of homes in the United States have declined 1.7 percent since August of 2012 (realestateabc.com, 2012). Figure 5 shows . . . Figure 5. Title What year? You need to state the year. If home sales continue to decline it could mean that mortgage rates will increase. Increase in mortgage rates would mean that home improvement stores such as the Home Depot would take the brunt of the impact in the hike of the rate. Improvement in the economic environment is crucial for retailers like Home Depot (Steverman, 2009).. The housing bust in the United States hit the Home Depot hard. Due to the state of the economy, the Home Depot had reduced the square footage growth plans in an effort to improve free cash flow and provide strong returns for the company. (Home Depot, 2012). In 2009, the company was forced to exit its EXPO, THD Design Center., Yardbirds, and HD Bath businesses in an effort to focus solely on the brick-and-mortar stores (Home Depot, 2012). According to the five-year summary of financial and operating results of the Home Depot, the company is slowly regaining its previous financial success. Its total net sales are still lower in 2011 than they were in 2007. However, the trend indicates that the company is poised to regain its momentum and bring sales back to what they were previously. Table 1 is a five-year summary of The Home Depots financial and operating results. Table 1. Title Quantitative Tools and Techniques There are many different tools and techniques that are commonly used to support business decision-making. Arguably, decision trees are one of the best tools to assist managers in choosing between several courses of actions. Decision trees take information directly from the managers and allows them to see the outcomes of different courses they might take. According to Mind Tools, there are five steps to creating a decision tree, as shown in Table 2. The first step is to draw a decision tree. This will be the outline to which the manager would fill in the information related to each course of action. Second step will be to evaluate the decision tree. In this step the manager would decide which options have the greatest worth (Mind Tools, n.d.). The third step would be to calculate the values in the tree. Mind Tools suggest to start on the right-hand side of the tree and work backwards to the left. The fourth step is to calculate the value of uncertain outcome nodes. When calculating th e value of uncertain outcomes, one would do this by multiplying the value of the outcomes by their profitability. The total for that node of the tree is the total of these values (Mind Tools, n.d.). The fifth step of creating a decision tree is calculating the value of the decision nodes. In this step managers will have to write down the cost of each option and then subtract the cost from outcome that would give managers a value that represents the benefit of that particular decision. Figure 6 is an example of a decision tree that was retrieved from the Mind Tools website. (Note: It should be Figure 6, not Figure 4) Figure 6. Marketing Concepts As a home improvement warehouse store, the Home Depots customer base are the average do-it-yourselfers, do it for me, and professionals. The Home Depots competition not only includes big-name stores like Lowes but the local hardware stores. The Home Depot uses multiple social media outlets such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. On these sites they reach out to customers through videos depicting how easy it is to do-it-yourself with the right tools and support from the store. They bring customers into the store by hosting how-to seminars. They do these things in an effort to increase brand loyalty, interaction with customers, and customers comfort level when doing projects on their own. In this day and age there are many outlets that companies can utilize an effort to reach maximum customer base. Chantal Tode (2012) wrote an article on how Home Depot decided to do an iPad app in an effort to integrate a customer experience that would get them more involved in home decor. Home Depot launched the Home Depot Style Guide Spring 2012 app around mid-March (Tode, 2012). This iPad application for the Home Depot has proven to be a huge success. The Home Depot will attempt to optimize Home Depot.com in an effort to provide iPad users with the best experience. Matt Jones, general manager of mobile for HomeDepot.com, Atlanta, Georgia said it has outperformed our expectations in terms of downloads, page views per visit and time spent in the app (Tode, 2012). Global View of Business Marketing. Success in international markets depends on a number of different things. When thinking about marketing for an international organization one must consider the wants and needs of that particular market. What works in Houston may not be the same in China. The Home Depot entered Chinas market in 2006. Unfortunately, the company did not do due diligence and study what the market demanded in that country. The Home Depot attempted to market in China the same way as it did in the United States. As a result the Home Depot will close the last of the seven stores in that country. Further research shows that the market in China is more of a do it for me culture (Burkitt, 2012), in part due to cheap labor and the fact that most individuals live in apartments. This means they have less need for items such as lumber and gardening tools. The closing of the stores will cost the Home Depot approximately $160 million after-tax in the third quarter 2012 (Burkitt, 2012). The Home Depot has a YouTube channel dedicated to Spanish speaking customers. This is a strategic marketing plan that should assist the Home Depot with its Spanish-speaking customers and improve its brand with. Management. Same comment as above. International management is one of the key things that brings success when working in a global economy. It is important to understand the culture of the country in which the business will operate. The Home Depot has stores in Canada, Mexico, . Canadian business is improving performance in the fourth quarter (Home Depot, 2012). Mexican business has 33 consecutive quarters of positive comp growth (Home Depot, 2012). Economic and Business Operations. Same comment as above about format. As previously discussed, the Home Depots economic and business operations are going quite well in the international market with the exception of China. The international businesses are operated similarly to those based in the United States. Nextels for the Home Depot outside of the United States were $8 billion for fiscal year 2011 (Home Depot, 2012). Social, Cultural, and Behavioral Foundations of Human Enterprise The Home Depot is very involved in community outreach programs. They have an organization known as The Home Depot Foundation with a mission to ensure that every veteran has a place to call home (Home Depot Foundation, 2012). In 2011 this organization completed more than 1000 projects with more than 400 of them focused specifically on veterans. They worked on projects such as painting local schools, community gardens, and refurbishing needy familys homes while working with local nonprofit organizations. The Home Depot also helps when disaster relief is needed. They assist local governments and organizations by providing supplies and resources needed to clean up and rebuild neighborhoods. The organization also contributes $500,000 to the American Red Cross annual disaster giving program (Home Depot Foundation, 2012). Business and Economic Principles Organizations such as the Home Depot need to understand that basic business and economic principles are of the utmost importance. This paper has discussed many different business and economic principles to include demand, economies of scale, opportunity costs and exit strategies. Critical Thinking The Home Depot solves problems and makes decisions more quickly due to the development of common vocabulary that is used throughout the organization. It utilizes a cross functional relationship approach by mixing the different strengths of the creative, teamwork, and rational approach to problem solving. The Home Depot also empowers its employees to think critically by taking courses offered through the employee website to enhance current skills and learn new ones. They also provide web-based seminars to help their employees learn how to resolve problems efficiently and effectively when they occur. Elements of the Environment That Influence Management Activities This paper has already presented many of the elements that affect management. Elements such as economic conditions, competition, and international environment have been discussed. Other elements that affect management, especially in a home improvement environment, would be things such as weather and social environment. The weather plays a large role due because it directly impacts customer flow to the store. During seasons that involve multiple days of inclement weather, management must make the decision as to what hours the store will be open, what conditions would cause the store to close early, and what items should be brought to the front of the store in an effort to catch the eye of customers. The Home Depot is already answering the question to social environment. When society changes so should business, and the Home Depot has done just that. One can find the Home Depot on many social media outlets such as Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube. Courses of Action (COA) The Home Depot currently uses microeconomic data and economic theory to forecast the levels of demand for its products through the Gross National Product (GNP). The problem is that its demand is closely based on the housing market. As of late the housing market has been unpredictable and therefore the Home Depot should utilize a different forecasting technique. Below are two different COAs to take in consideration. Course of Action One The first course of action would be to implement the Delphi method to forcast inventory needs. This method is a combination of qualitative and quantitative processes that are derived from qualified experts opinions and are used to develop possible theories for the future. There are five steps in the Delphi method (Chong, Adnan, Zin, 2012). The first of his two identify the problem. Administrators will design questionnaires and evaluate total costs before starting the actual procedures. Upon completion of this step the expert selection will begin. Step two is actually selecting the experts. The actual size of the project that needs to be completed will be the determining factor as to how many experts will sit on the panel. The size of the panel actually depends on the budget allotted (Chong et al., 2012). The next step is to administer the questionnaire to the experts. In this step the members of the panel will draw conclusions from their own personal experiences and any other sort o f data or research that is available to them at the time (Chong et al., 2012). The fourth step is actually broken down into different parts. The first part will be to evaluate the responses that were generated from the original questionnaire. The responses that are evaluated from the first questionnaire are used by the director to develop more in-depth questions to be used in the second questionnaire. The second part of the fourth step is to redistribute the questionnaire with more focused questions in an organized list of the responses to these questions on the first questionnaire (Chong et al., 2012). The fifth step is to interpret the results. This final step will continue until all the experts said on the panel comes to a consensus (Chong et al., 2012). The reason this process works relatively well is because the experts are not together. This allows administrators to get a true consensus without prejudice or bias. Figure 7 shows how the Delphi method is used. Figure 7. Delphi Method. Course of Action Two The second course of action would be to implement the Holt-Winters Method for Seasonality Technique. This method utilizes the seasonality factor in order to account for seasonality associated with a product (Gelper, Fried, Croux, 2008). For example, the Home Depot sells many lawnmowers in the springtime and many air-conditioners when the temperature rises in the summer. This particular method needs to estimate three components of a forecasting equation (Gelper et al., 2008). The first component is the current level of sales. This component is achieved by removing noise and all seasonal aspects of the level. The second component is to use the current trend. This is the difference between the levels that are expected to happen between any two given seasons. The third is to add the seasonality. For example, if the Home Depot wanted to forecast sales for August and it is June, the following equalization could be utilized: [level (100) +2*trend (10)]*seasonal (1.4) = 128 units The Holt Winters method estimated that the current level is 100, the trend is five, and August has the seasonal index of 1.4. Figure 8 shows an example of the Holt Winters exponential smoothing. Figure 8. Holt Winters Exponential Smoothing. (Note: I see you have a legend on this one. Good) Recommendation Given the choices between the Delphi method and t
Special Effects Special effects in motion pictures has evolved over the years into an involved science of illusion and visual magic. The following is a comprehensive perspective depicting the rapidly expanding realm of cinematography. In times of old, special effects in movies was limited to an individual's creativity and the constrictive limits of the tools available. However the results of early special effects masters astounded audiences in their age in the same manner that modern artists do today. The ability to create an effect that was brand new was, and still is, the key to the industry. Techniques range from the expected to the bizarre in order to achieve a certain image or illusion. Cinematographers in the early fifties would use a black cloth backdrop with white paint splattered off of toothpicks to simulate a space scene in the many science-fiction movies made in that era. There is also stories of a common plate being thrown across a "space" backdrop to emulate a flying saucer in mid-flight. Although the special effects persons of old were strapped with limits, one of these was not make-up. They relied heavily on this prop to portray the many monsters and aliens in their films. "Nosferatu" a German film about the vampire with the same name was a huge success even in America, where thousands marveled at the intricate detailing of the blood-sucker's razor-like teeth, bulging eyes and a pointed nose and ears. "The Creature from the Black Lagoon" used a somewhat new technique of a body suit that the actor wore along with a mask made of latex rubber and foam. Using cooking oil or butter spread on the body and mask gave an enhancement of sliminess added to the monster image. A fairly recent film using heavy make-up effects is "An American Werewolf in London" done by the master make-up artist Rick Baker who shows what can be done with a steady hand and a lot of patience. Another popular trick used was strings to manipulate miniature objects. Often used in the science fiction era to show spacecraft or other objects in flight was thin strings attached to miniatures. Audiences did notice the obvious strings but it did not matter at the time because it was state of the art. The next major breakthrough in the effects world was stop-motion animation. A process by which objects were... ...l effects has come. The computer age has touched the movie world and made a huge impact. Literally anything is possible with the assistance of computers. Using software and hardware costing in the hundreds of thousands of dollars, 3D mesh object renderings are leaving all other techniques in the past. CGI, which stands for Computer Generated Imaging, is the latest way to get exactly what movie companies want in their films. Flawless in appearance and challenging actual objects the viewer is often left flustered as to if what they are seeing is real or computer generated. Industry giants in this latest technique include Lucas' ILM as well as Pacific Data Images. Movies using mainly CGI include, "Independence Day", "Terminator 2" and, of course, "Jurassic Park". Special effects have played an essential role in the motion picture experience for over 70 years and with good reason. Whether it be a plate being thrown across the screen or a computer generated Star Destroyer, a clay ape on a cardboard Empire State Building or a T-Rex smacking his head on the side of your jeep, the art of movie illusion will only cease to grow when our minds do.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Female Genital Mutilation, or Female Circumcision as sometimes called, is the partial or complete removal of the female clitoris immediately after birth, few years after birth (early childhood), or several years after birth (adolescence). Originally, female genital mutilation was practiced to ensure female virginity until marriage; as it was discovered that by the partial or complete removal of the clitoris, a female's sexual urge is minimized and, therefore, a girl could have more control over her sexual desires. Because virginity was and remains a very crucial factor in almost every society, circumcision was invented way in the past before any of the Heavenly Religions appeared. In fact, the most traditional and conservative type of circumcision is the Pharoanic type (Infibulation), where the complete removal of the clitoris occurs and the vulva walls are stitched together leaving a small opening for urination and menstrual discharge. Nowadays, however, it continues to be practiced in Africa and the Middle East mostly due to social forces. New reasoning developed through the years to keep the ritual going on. The many reasons given for the practice are bewildering and unfounded in any scientific or medical fact. They fall into four main categories: psycho-sexual, religious, sociological and hygienic. Among the psycho-sexual reasons is a belief that the clitoris is an aggressive organ that threatens the male organ and even endangers babies during delivery. It is believed that if a baby's head touches the mother's clitoris during birth, the child will be born with a low IQ. Hence, a girl who is not circumcised, is considered 'unclean' by local villagers and thus unmarriageable. A girl who does not have here clitoris removed is considered a great danger and ultimately fatal to a man if her clitoris touches his penis. Also, the circumcision issue is seen as a form of beauty. It is seen as aesthetically beautiful, as genitals are disfiguring and ugly in their natural state (Real Net, 2). In short, nowadays the practice isn't done to explicitly mean that girls are untrustable, but because, presently, the woman's clitoris is considered to be an ugly part in a woman's body and perceived to be harmful in many ways. And not long ago, Sigmund Freud wrote 'The elimination of clitorial sexuality is a necessary precondition for the developm... ...found in the understandably screwed up countries of northern and western Africa. And if you come to the west and do this, they'll throw your ass in jail (hopefully) forever.Ã¢â¬ In defense for such an offensive article came out an article from an Arabic Doctor, who refused to reveal his identity, saying that of course he approved of that girl being circumcised. And here are some of the things that he wrote where the girl gains from being circumcised: Ã¢â¬Å"* It raises her status in her community, both because of the added purity that circumcision brings and the bravery that initiates are called upon to show. * It confers maturity and inculates positive character traits, including the ability to endure pain and a submissive nature. * The circumcision ritual is an enjoyable one, in which the girl is the center of attention and receives presents and moral instructions from her elders. * All impure tissue is removed and the girl is sewn up until her wedding night.Ã¢â¬ This is how significant the psychological part of it is. No matter how much descent education people get, if they have routed traditions they will always find ways to approve of them even if they are clear disasters.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Siddhartha by Herman Hesse Siddhartha, by Herman Hesse is the story of a young Brahmin who ventures off in the world to find the meaning of life. His journey begins as a young Brahmin who excelled in life but felt he was missing something and ends as a wise man that has found peace within him. Throughout the book, Hesse allows the reader to connect with Siddhartha and watch as he grows through his experiences, and people with whom he comes in contact. During his journey, Siddhartha, makes many choices which leads to path of life which is marked by self-discovery and independence. Siddhartha grows as a person through three main occurrences: his meeting with Buddha, his attempted suicide, and his time spent with his son, as they all contribute to his finding of himself. Siddhartha's meeting with Gotama, the Buddha, is the first experience that contributes to his path of self-discovery. After several years of living the ascetic life of a Samana, Siddhartha decides to seek out Gotama, "The Illustrious One," as a teacher or mentor in his journey to find his inner self. After their meeting, however, Siddhartha becomes more convinced that the Buddha's teachings only apply to the Buddha himself, because it is what the Buddha has learned on his own path to nirvana, and SiddharthaÃ¢â¬â¢s path may differ. Siddhartha is convinced that he must find his path himself if he wishes to find nirvana. He understands that the Buddha had a remarkable experienc...
Saturday, August 17, 2019
The Soviet people thought after the war, their lives would get better but Stalin Hough if they wanted more, they would rebel. He did what he could to not let them want more than what they had. 2. In the summer of 1948, Stalin ordered a blockade of West Berlin The Cold War Powering 1 . Feeling that the future peace of the world would depend upon relations between the united States and Russia, FED devoted much thought to the planning of a United Nations, In which, he hoped, International difficulties could be settled. . Hiss was accused of being a Soviet spy in 1 948 and convicted of perjury in connection with this hare in 1950. It is very likely that he was innocent. Chapter 26 1 . Why did relations between the United States and Soviet Union deteriorate after WWW? P. 782-791 The USSR was based on a communist system and wanted to spread communism all over the world. The united States was based on a capitalistic democracy and wanted to prevent communism. 2. Why did Truman have Limited s uccess In Implementing his domestic agenda? P. 92-800 Congress rejected Trauma's proposal for call rights, a medical lobby blocked he plans for a universal health care program, his concentration on foreign policy rather than domestic didn't help, and there was a wave of anticommunism that weakened liberal and leftist forces. 3. How did the Korean War shape American foreign policy in the sass? P. 800-805 The Korean War shaped American foreign policy in the sass by showing the American people, and the rest of the World that communism would be militarily opposed. Chapter 27 1 . How did Eisenhower domestic polices reflect his moderate political vision?P. 811-815 He resisted expanding the governments power. Eisenhower, the 34th president of the United States, obtained a truce in Korea and worked incessantly during his two terms to ease the tensions of the Cold War. I infer that he felt the need to end the war, during the war 3. How did technology contribute to changes in economy, substan tiation, and the growth of the Sun Belt? P. 821-827 4. Why did American consumption expand so dramatically in the sass and what aspects of society and culture did it influence? P. 827-832 Americans after WWW 2 entered an era of prosperity and affluence.This general well-being can be most Leary seen in the mass consumption of consumers goods fueled by television and the housing boom. The middle class benefited the most 5. What were the goals and strategies of civil rights activists in the sass? P. 832-836 The goals of the civil rights movement were meaningful civil rights laws, a massive federal works program, full and fair employment, decent housing, the right to vote, and adequate integrated education. The right to vote was passed and placed in the bill of rights (1 5th amendment) in 1870 part of the reconstruction era.So during ass's during the civil rights movement the right to vote was not one of their goals because it was already in effect for African Americans to vote. Chapter 28 1 . Why did Kennedy believe that engagement in Vietnam was crucial to his foreign policy? P. 877-884 Anticommunism, the red threat, expansion of communism in Asia were all part of his foreign policy at the time. The initial engagements in Vietnam were to stop the spread of communism. It was a policy of containment of communism. Kennedy feared that if Vietnam fell so would the rest of the Asia 2.Why did massive amounts of airport and ground troops fail to bring U. S. Victory Vietnam? P. 884-888 3. How did the Vietnam War shape the election of 1968? P. 888-893 LB] refused to run for re-election; he was burned out. The nation wanted (and needed) an experienced Ã¢â¬Å"get the Job doneÃ¢â¬ president. Nixon promised to deliver! The country believed him. And he delivered 4. What strategies did Nixon implement to bring American involvement in Vietnam to a close? P. 893-901 Optimization. Its goal was to create strong, largely self-reliant South Vietnamese military forces. Book Review Book Review Totto-Chan: The Little Girl at the Window Totto Chan: The Little Girl At The Window is a book which has engaging series of childhood recollections tell about an ideal school, Tomoe that combined learning with fun, freedom, and love and adventure. The school was in the railroad cars for classrooms and run by a good head teacher who was a firm believer in freedom of expression and activity. This book depicts the childhood activities of Tetsuko Kuroyanagi, the author of this book, whose childhood nickname is Totto Chan and translated by Dorothy Britton. Expelled from first grade:The story starts with by telling of Totto-ChanÃ¢â¬â¢s expelling from the previous school when she was in grade one. The little girl Ã¢â¬ËTotto-ChanÃ¢â¬â¢ was waiting all the morning for street bands to walk by the school and call them over to play their music which was considered as highly disruptive behaviour and aggravated, her teacher decided that the girl would be no more in the school. Fin ally, her mother found a school after searching and took her to the school- Tomoe Gakuen, where the little girl Totto-Chan impressed the head-master through her talking which stunned to her mother.The school has only fifty students in total and the classrooms were conducted in disused train cars. In the assembly hall, all students shared their daily lunch consisting of Ã¢â¬Å"something from the ocean (fish, seaweed, bonito flakes, etc. ) and something from the hills (vegetables, beef, pork, pickled plum, etc. ). Ã¢â¬ So, doubts scaffolding knowledge in Totto-ChanÃ¢â¬â¢s mind and she used to ask her mother about it when she returned to home. The headmaster meant to it was balanced food which necessary for children, but the children only concerned about to fulfilled the two requirements.This relates to the everyday knowledge which children can think on it and learn what is necessary for a good health. Mr. Kobayachi, the headmaster believed in experimental learning, even he asked the parents of the children send their kids with their worst clothes to school. Lessons at Tomoe: In that school, Tomoe, children enjoyed lot of freedom in the sense that they were free to do anything as their wish. The head teacher had trust on students; there they were engaged in such adventurous tasks like climbing trees, play freely or stay in class to finish a science experiment during recess.Students were getting space for doing or playing as their wish in which teachers guided them and help them how to do it, so their confidence enhanced through it. Here is a description of classes at Tomoe Gakuen: Ã¢â¬Å"At the beginning of the first period, the teacher made a list of all the problems and questions in the subjects to be studied that day. Then she would say, Ã¢â¬Å"Now, start with any of these you like. Ã¢â¬ This is one kind of methods of teaching by which teacher can able to observe that the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s progress to higher grades by observing their interest in which area as well as their way of thinking.I think, it is a best way for teachers to know their students in a better way means to understand their interested field and teach accordingly (p. 12). Many activities based learnings were taught by the headmaster that really seemed impossible in practical, but it was. As you know, Children were encouraged to study whatever subjects they liked first, they were taken to Ã¢â¬Ëfield kitchensÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëfarming lessonsÃ¢â¬â¢ to learn the practical aspects of cooking food and farming, first hand- related to real life experience. Adventures on the school groundsThis is very surprising and interesting activity in that school. Totto Chan began her adventurous learning at Tomoe like she had a tree in the ground- which every child understood that tree is their private property, if anyone wanted to climb their tree must seek permission. So, one day she invited her friend Yasuaki-Chan to her tree because she knew that Yasuaki had had polio and c ould not climb. But Totto-Chan decided that Yasuaki deserved to see the world from the top of a tree, so she used some inventiveness and with full strength she helped Yasuaki to get to the top of the tree.At last, Yasuaki abled to stand in her tree and look at the surrounding areas and enjoyed which filled happiness and thrilled them both. It creates confidence to face the difficulties and problems and enhances problem solving skills. Except this, she had another most memorable experience when she dropped her purse down the toilet! Undaunted, she started emptying the cesspool by using a wooden ladle. Did you know what the headmasterÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction was when he saw Totto-Chan was doing such things? He asked her, Ã¢â¬Å"What you were doingÃ¢â¬ and he replied I dropped my purse. But she kept ladling out the cesspool; and the teacher came once more and asked, Ã¢â¬Å"Did you find it? She replied Ã¢â¬ËNoÃ¢â¬â¢. So, then teacher said in a smiling friendly tone, Ã¢â¬Å"You will put it all back when you have finished, wonÃ¢â¬â¢t you? Ã¢â¬ (p. 21-22). So, from this, it seems that how she behaved like a matured person and how her ideas develop in cognitive level spontaneously through practicing ladling continuously for the lost purse. Railroad Car Arrives: The school Tomoe runs in the railroad cars you all knew very well.Miyo-Chan, the third daughter of head master said, there is coming a new railroad car tonight. Already they have sis railroad cars which lined up together as classrooms but one more was coming, so small confusion spread out quickly with terribly excitement also. So, Miyo-Chan was selected as representative to ask to her father about their decision, but her father, the headmaster agreed upon and instruct them to take permission first of their parents and will bring their pajamas and blankets.After reaching home, Totto-Chan explained her mother about a train was coming and she wanted to go and watch it how it was going there without tracks; a nd asked for mother permission. Her mother got surprise and finally what the matter was about she was talking and went with her to school and some children accompanied with their parents came too. The children were assured by the headmaster that when the railroad car will arrive, I will wake up you all. All children lay down in the Assembly Hall with their pajamas and blankets.In the very morning Totto-Chan woke up and others too, watched the big railroad slowly moved and they all danced in joy. The headmaster explained them, Ã¢â¬Å"Watch carefully, they are called rollers. Rolling power is being used to move that big car. Ã¢â¬ Through this activity, it is clear that students get idea about how the railroad cars moved from one place to another by using roller power. (p. 23-24) The Library Car Class: After winter vacation, children discovered something new and wonderful, and greeted their discovery with joyous shouts.It is the library car class where everyone wanted to do their fi rst class after the winter break. So, all 50 students piled up into the car with great excitement picked some books and read. But Totto-Chan couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t read well, she also picked a picture book that looked most entertaining. The library car class was suddenly full with loud voices like a flock of birds chirping song aloud. Really most entertaining moment for the children the school was ever (p. 61). Similar experience I had when I was in field visit to Vidya Bhawan, Udaipur.They run a Wheel Library for slum children where they carried a van with many books and games accessories especially for children like ludoo, carom, etc. We accompanied them one day in the afternoon (the Wheel Library runs twice in a week to a particular slum area and covers minimum 3 different slum areas), really children enjoyed the book reading- story books, picture books and learning was happening through many activities which conducted by the Wheel Library Teacher. Things to fear:When I think on this, m any questions struck to my mind- Who permitted the headmaster to experiment the children, fail and learn, teach them to fear? Are the parents known about the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s teachings- to teach them to fear? Or Is it schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives to teach the children to learn these things? Having eyes, but not seeing beauty; having ears, but not hearing music; having minds, but not perceiving truth; having hearts that are never moved and therefore never set on fire. These are the things to fear, which were said by the headmaster.War: A Dark Night Cloud A crucial time had come in between happiness and war. At last, the day at the school Tomoe turned to dark night by the war cloud. The World War II reached Japan soon and the school Tomoe Gakuen was destroyed in the war bombings. Through this children were able to learn and understood about cruelties and difficulties of war. As a watcher of the burning his own school in flame, the headmaster said to his son awfully, Ã¢â¬Å"After whom the school had been named, Ã¢â¬Å"What kind of school shall we build next? Ã¢â¬Å"Conclusion: This book is too entertaining to read, or seems like full of fairy-tale or fable, where Totto-Chan seems a magnet for trouble. Each part of the book seems to be a fun recollection story or a memoir of the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood. This book featured about an alternative schooling where childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s overall develop emphasized through activity based learning rather than the old-fashioned classroom teaching. This book is best for me in the sense that full with pleasurable moments, enjoyment and heart touching incidents. Book Review Book Review Totto-Chan: The Little Girl at the Window Totto Chan: The Little Girl At The Window is a book which has engaging series of childhood recollections tell about an ideal school, Tomoe that combined learning with fun, freedom, and love and adventure. The school was in the railroad cars for classrooms and run by a good head teacher who was a firm believer in freedom of expression and activity. This book depicts the childhood activities of Tetsuko Kuroyanagi, the author of this book, whose childhood nickname is Totto Chan and translated by Dorothy Britton. Expelled from first grade:The story starts with by telling of Totto-ChanÃ¢â¬â¢s expelling from the previous school when she was in grade one. The little girl Ã¢â¬ËTotto-ChanÃ¢â¬â¢ was waiting all the morning for street bands to walk by the school and call them over to play their music which was considered as highly disruptive behaviour and aggravated, her teacher decided that the girl would be no more in the school. Fin ally, her mother found a school after searching and took her to the school- Tomoe Gakuen, where the little girl Totto-Chan impressed the head-master through her talking which stunned to her mother.The school has only fifty students in total and the classrooms were conducted in disused train cars. In the assembly hall, all students shared their daily lunch consisting of Ã¢â¬Å"something from the ocean (fish, seaweed, bonito flakes, etc. ) and something from the hills (vegetables, beef, pork, pickled plum, etc. ). Ã¢â¬ So, doubts scaffolding knowledge in Totto-ChanÃ¢â¬â¢s mind and she used to ask her mother about it when she returned to home. The headmaster meant to it was balanced food which necessary for children, but the children only concerned about to fulfilled the two requirements.This relates to the everyday knowledge which children can think on it and learn what is necessary for a good health. Mr. Kobayachi, the headmaster believed in experimental learning, even he asked the parents of the children send their kids with their worst clothes to school. Lessons at Tomoe: In that school, Tomoe, children enjoyed lot of freedom in the sense that they were free to do anything as their wish. The head teacher had trust on students; there they were engaged in such adventurous tasks like climbing trees, play freely or stay in class to finish a science experiment during recess.Students were getting space for doing or playing as their wish in which teachers guided them and help them how to do it, so their confidence enhanced through it. Here is a description of classes at Tomoe Gakuen: Ã¢â¬Å"At the beginning of the first period, the teacher made a list of all the problems and questions in the subjects to be studied that day. Then she would say, Ã¢â¬Å"Now, start with any of these you like. Ã¢â¬ This is one kind of methods of teaching by which teacher can able to observe that the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s progress to higher grades by observing their interest in which area as well as their way of thinking.I think, it is a best way for teachers to know their students in a better way means to understand their interested field and teach accordingly (p. 12). Many activities based learnings were taught by the headmaster that really seemed impossible in practical, but it was. As you know, Children were encouraged to study whatever subjects they liked first, they were taken to Ã¢â¬Ëfield kitchensÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëfarming lessonsÃ¢â¬â¢ to learn the practical aspects of cooking food and farming, first hand- related to real life experience. Adventures on the school groundsThis is very surprising and interesting activity in that school. Totto Chan began her adventurous learning at Tomoe like she had a tree in the ground- which every child understood that tree is their private property, if anyone wanted to climb their tree must seek permission. So, one day she invited her friend Yasuaki-Chan to her tree because she knew that Yasuaki had had polio and c ould not climb. But Totto-Chan decided that Yasuaki deserved to see the world from the top of a tree, so she used some inventiveness and with full strength she helped Yasuaki to get to the top of the tree.At last, Yasuaki abled to stand in her tree and look at the surrounding areas and enjoyed which filled happiness and thrilled them both. It creates confidence to face the difficulties and problems and enhances problem solving skills. Except this, she had another most memorable experience when she dropped her purse down the toilet! Undaunted, she started emptying the cesspool by using a wooden ladle. Did you know what the headmasterÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction was when he saw Totto-Chan was doing such things? He asked her, Ã¢â¬Å"What you were doingÃ¢â¬ and he replied I dropped my purse. But she kept ladling out the cesspool; and the teacher came once more and asked, Ã¢â¬Å"Did you find it? She replied Ã¢â¬ËNoÃ¢â¬â¢. So, then teacher said in a smiling friendly tone, Ã¢â¬Å"You will put it all back when you have finished, wonÃ¢â¬â¢t you? Ã¢â¬ (p. 21-22). So, from this, it seems that how she behaved like a matured person and how her ideas develop in cognitive level spontaneously through practicing ladling continuously for the lost purse. Railroad Car Arrives: The school Tomoe runs in the railroad cars you all knew very well.Miyo-Chan, the third daughter of head master said, there is coming a new railroad car tonight. Already they have sis railroad cars which lined up together as classrooms but one more was coming, so small confusion spread out quickly with terribly excitement also. So, Miyo-Chan was selected as representative to ask to her father about their decision, but her father, the headmaster agreed upon and instruct them to take permission first of their parents and will bring their pajamas and blankets.After reaching home, Totto-Chan explained her mother about a train was coming and she wanted to go and watch it how it was going there without tracks; a nd asked for mother permission. Her mother got surprise and finally what the matter was about she was talking and went with her to school and some children accompanied with their parents came too. The children were assured by the headmaster that when the railroad car will arrive, I will wake up you all. All children lay down in the Assembly Hall with their pajamas and blankets.In the very morning Totto-Chan woke up and others too, watched the big railroad slowly moved and they all danced in joy. The headmaster explained them, Ã¢â¬Å"Watch carefully, they are called rollers. Rolling power is being used to move that big car. Ã¢â¬ Through this activity, it is clear that students get idea about how the railroad cars moved from one place to another by using roller power. (p. 23-24) The Library Car Class: After winter vacation, children discovered something new and wonderful, and greeted their discovery with joyous shouts.It is the library car class where everyone wanted to do their fi rst class after the winter break. So, all 50 students piled up into the car with great excitement picked some books and read. But Totto-Chan couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t read well, she also picked a picture book that looked most entertaining. The library car class was suddenly full with loud voices like a flock of birds chirping song aloud. Really most entertaining moment for the children the school was ever (p. 61). Similar experience I had when I was in field visit to Vidya Bhawan, Udaipur.They run a Wheel Library for slum children where they carried a van with many books and games accessories especially for children like ludoo, carom, etc. We accompanied them one day in the afternoon (the Wheel Library runs twice in a week to a particular slum area and covers minimum 3 different slum areas), really children enjoyed the book reading- story books, picture books and learning was happening through many activities which conducted by the Wheel Library Teacher. Things to fear:When I think on this, m any questions struck to my mind- Who permitted the headmaster to experiment the children, fail and learn, teach them to fear? Are the parents known about the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s teachings- to teach them to fear? Or Is it schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives to teach the children to learn these things? Having eyes, but not seeing beauty; having ears, but not hearing music; having minds, but not perceiving truth; having hearts that are never moved and therefore never set on fire. These are the things to fear, which were said by the headmaster.War: A Dark Night Cloud A crucial time had come in between happiness and war. At last, the day at the school Tomoe turned to dark night by the war cloud. The World War II reached Japan soon and the school Tomoe Gakuen was destroyed in the war bombings. Through this children were able to learn and understood about cruelties and difficulties of war. As a watcher of the burning his own school in flame, the headmaster said to his son awfully, Ã¢â¬Å"After whom the school had been named, Ã¢â¬Å"What kind of school shall we build next? Ã¢â¬Å"Conclusion: This book is too entertaining to read, or seems like full of fairy-tale or fable, where Totto-Chan seems a magnet for trouble. Each part of the book seems to be a fun recollection story or a memoir of the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood. This book featured about an alternative schooling where childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s overall develop emphasized through activity based learning rather than the old-fashioned classroom teaching. This book is best for me in the sense that full with pleasurable moments, enjoyment and heart touching incidents.