Monday, September 30, 2019

Finite automata

The symbols of the sequence are presented sequentially to a machine M. M responds with a binary signal to each Input. If the string scanned so far Is accepted, then the light goes on, else the light Is A language acceptor * Lesson 3 employs the treatment of this subject as found in Machines, Languages, and Computation by Denning, Dennis and Qualitz , Prentice-Hall. Transducer Abstract machines that operate as transducers are of interest in connection with the translation of languages.The following transducer produces a sentence (l) 12) r(r,) in response to the input sentence s(l) s(2) s(m) translated into a specific sentence of an output language. Generator When M is started from its initial state, it emits a sequence of symbols (1) r(2) r(i) r(t) from a set known as its output alphabet. We will begin our study with the transducer model of abstract machine (or automaton). We often refer to such a device as a Finite State Machine (FSM) or as an automaton with output.Finite State Machi ne (FSM) The FSM model arises naturally from physical settings in which information-denoting Only a finite number of operations may be performed in a finite amount of time. Such systems are necessarily discrete. Problems are quite naturally decomposed into sequences of steps – hence our model is sequential. We require that our machine not be subject to uncertainty, hence its behavior is deterministic. There are two finite state machine models : Mealy model – in which outputs occur during transitions.Moore model – outputs are produced upon arrival at a new state. Mealy Model of FSM Mealy model – transition assigned output Q = finite set of states S = input alphabet // the machine's memory // set of stimuli R = output alphabet // set of responses = the machine's initial state ql : state transition function (or next state function) g : output function g: SOR example Design a FSM (Mealy model) which takes in binary inputs and produces a ‘1' as output wh enever the parity of the input string ( so far ) is even.When designing such models, we should ask ourselves â€Å"What is the state set of the machine? â€Å". The state set Q corresponds to what we need to remember about input strings. We note that the number of possible input strings corresponds to I which is countably infinite. We observe, however, that a string may have only one of two possible parities. even parity – if nl(w) is even. odd parity – if nl(w) is odd. And this is all that our machine must remember about a string scanned so far.Hence IQI = 2 where Q = {E, o} with ql = E indicating the string has even parity and if Mt is in state o, then the string has odd parity. And finally, of course, we must specify the output function g for this Mealy machine. According to this machine's specifications, it is supposed to produce an output of ‘1' whenever the parity of the input string so far is even. Hence, all arcs leading into state E should be labeled w ith a ‘1' output.Parity Checker (Mealy machine) state diagram Observe our notation that g(o, 1) = 1 is indicated by the arc from state o to state E ith a ‘1' after a slash state table present state input = O next state, output input = 1 for this parity machine Observe for the input 10100011 our machine produces the output sequence the corresponding admissible state sequence a second example Construct a Mealy model of an FSM that behaves as a two-unit delay. i. e. O , otherwise A sample input/output session is given below : time 123456789 stimuluso 001 1 01 OO response O O O 1 1 0 1 Observe that r(6)= 1 which equals s(4) and so on We know that S = R = {O, 1}. Moore model of FSM Ms † – the output function assigns an output symbol to each state. Q = finite set of internal states S = finite input alphabet R = finite output alphabet f : state transition function h : output function ql = EQ is the initial state Design a Moore machine that will analyze input sequen ces in the binary alphabet S {O, 1}.Let w = s(l) s(2) s(t) be an input string NO(w) = number of O's in w NI(w)= number of I's in w then we have that IWI = NO(w) + NI(w)= The last output of Ms should equal : r(t) = [NI(W) So naturally, the output alphabet R = {O, – NO(w)] mod 4. stimulus 1 1 01 1 1 OO response 0 1 2 1 23 0 3 2 Observe that the length of the output sequence is one longer than the input sequence. Why is this so? Btw : This will always be the case. The corresponding Moore machine : c 2 3 This machine is referred to as an up-down counter.For the previous input sequence : 11011100 the state sequence is : second example machine should output a ‘1' whenever this pattern matches the last four inputs, and there has been no overlap, otherwise output a ‘O'. Hence s = R = {0, 1}. Here is a sample input/output sequence for this machine : 12345678910 11 12 s 101 We observe that 1 because s(2) s(3) s(4) s(5) however r(8) = O because there has been overlap stnce s (8) s(9) S(IO) 1) = 1011 What is the state set for this machine 0101101 000100000010 1011 Ask yourself what is it that Ms must remember in order to function correctly.Machine Identification Problem The following input-output behavior was exhibited by a transition-assigned machine (Mealy machine) Mt known to contain three states. Find an appropriate state table for M. Is the table unique? 12345678910 11 12 13 14 input 0000100010 1 0 output 01 01 000010 1 0 0 1 This problem is useful in fault detection and fault location experiments with sequential circuits ( i. e. digital circuits with memory ). One designs a computer circuit. Six months (or six years) later, how does one know that the circuit is working correctly? Where do we start

Sunday, September 29, 2019

The biggest thing I have learned from music

In â€Å"The Art of Eating Spaghetti,† Russel Baker's discovered his passion to become a writer. Wrting was the only talent and it was the only outlet for him to find who he is. If there was one thing that I've noticed that has changed me, that is music. Before I got into music, I was someone completely different. But then about 10 years ago, I finally bought my first music CD; it was a soundtrack to the movie, Crow: City of Angels. That day, something just clicked in me, like a missing piece of a puzzle. After that, while my sister was at school, every chance I got I went into her already extensive music collection and began listening to more and more music. It was essentially a snowball effect from there. I just kept getting my hands on more and more music until I've amassed currently almost 500 albums. Much of my personality changed as well. It changed many of the ways I looked at the world because I started hearing so many more perspectives on it through the music. Instead of just a visual representation I had grown up with, I now had an audio representation of the world. So many ways of translation just coming straight to me through my ears. My views just broadened up so much and I started to accept much more into my life. I used to never like change. If I was at a restaurant, I'd get only what I absolutely knew I would like. Music made me to become much more experimental as it opened my eyes and helped me become much more acceptable of change and trying new things. I would say that's the biggest thing I have learned from music. Is the prospect of how beautiful things can become if looked at in more than one way. Music showed this to me and taught me a way to be able to finally express it. I used to have such a hard time expressing myself, but music became my avenue for expression. Now whatever effects me, it can show in my work, and the music I write. Again, music taught me how to accept change, and also to become more passionate. Well it kind of goes hand in hand to me, as expression leads to passion, and vice versa. I tried to do that with art, but it just never fully took me the way music did. I've grown and changed more from music than anything else in my entire life. If you knew me ten years ago, you wouldn't even know me anymore. It's funny how much some of the most simple things to some people, can be so complex and life changing to others. But thankfully, I was fortunate enough to discover music, because I can't imagine anymore the way I was. Now my world is so much more open to interpretation in ways I never thought possible before. Music would probably be the first drug I can say I ever discovered. When I listened to that movie soundtrack for the first time, listening to all those great bands, I just felt such a rush like nothing I ever felt before. It was insane to me. That cd was a gateway for me to bigger and better music. A lot of music is just music to me, thats all, I still enjoy it, but some bands and soundtracks are something else. My prime example is Tool. When I first heard their song called â€Å"Third Eye†, I learned that music carried no boundaries. This was music unlike any rock I've ever heard before. It was so intricate as it went on. So many parts to the song that sound nothing alike, but they mesh together like a beautiful tapestry. Parts are peaceful and beautiful, and parts are a tempest of intruments, and each section rung a note inside me, just taking me someplace else entirely when I closed my eyes. Its like, behind my eyelids, I could see what the singer was seeing as he sang his heart out. The first time this ever happened to me, I could remember vividly like I was on a sandy desert, but it wasn't hot, it was rather cool and the sky was pinkish. And there were pools of water all over the place, like it just rained for hours, and inside the sand, there were black shiny stones everywhere scattered. After that happened to me, I been hooked on Tool ever since. No music has had a more profound effect on me before that day. Man, if anything can make a grown woman feel like a little child that is so excited before christmas, that is Tool for me. So overall, music has showed me how much more there is in the world besides what we see everyday. The eyes are just one sense, and the ears can tell just as much about the world as the eyes. The world just appears more beautiful when you can see deeper inside of it. You have to see the abstract of something to truly appreciate it for how beautiful it is.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Law for business Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 3

Law for business - Essay Example Dickman, however, stated that there is a requirement of proximity between the claimant and the defendant (Caparo Industries Place v. Dickman [1990] 2 AC 605). Foreseeability alone is not enough to create a duty of care (Hill v. Chief Constable of West Yorkshire [1989] AC 53, 60). Thus, under the Donaghue test, a duty of care would be established. Donoghue concerned a decomposed snail in the claimants ginger beer. Initially, there was held to not be a duty of care, as there was not a proximity between the claimant and the shopkeeper, as the claimant did not purchase the ginger beer. However, the Donoghue court decided that the shopkeeper did owe a duty of care to the woman, as it was reasonably foreseeable that she would be harmed by having snail in her drink, and she would have been considered to be a â€Å"neighbor† (Donoghue v. Stevenson, p. 580). Thus, under Donoghue, there would be sufficient proximity between the claimant, Jeff, and Rodney to establish a duty of care. Just as in the Donoghue case, there was not a special relationship between the parties, yet the harm was reasonably foreseeable – it was reasonably foreseeable that, if one drinks and drives, an accident may occur. Jeff would be considered to be a â€Å"neighbor† in the loose sense of the term, in that the loose sense of the term would describe a â€Å"neighbor† as anybody who would be reasonably foreseeably harmed by the defendants actions. Therefore, under Donoghue, the first element, duty, is established. Next, did Rodney breach that duty? In other words, did he act as a reasonable man would act? (Blyth v. Company Proprietors of the Birmingham Water Works (1856) 11 Ex Ch 781). This is the objective test for whether or not a breach occurred. At first glance, it would seem that Rodney did not act reasonably – he drank and drove. And, there was some indication that the vehicle might have been unsafe, as it was described as â€Å"rather old.† Therefore,

Friday, September 27, 2019

Business Organisation and policy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Business Organisation and policy - Essay Example The PESTLE analysis is an important tool for understanding main environmental forces affecting global pharmaceutical industry based on data on political, economical, socio-cultural, legal and environmental concerns analysis provides. Political factors affecting pharmaceutical industry are in most cases interlinked as governments work to establish regulatory frameworks to govern both state and international issues involved in the industry. Therefore, governments have introduced both formal and informal rules to manage the industry through measures that include taxation policies, trade restrictions and tariffs, political stability. Apart from providing an enabling environment through political stability, governments have supported this industry based on the understanding of the role of healthy citizenry to economic development of the country. Pharmaceuticals have therefore worked with governments in introducing drugs to different countries based on the understanding of their importance to the wellbeing of a country. Governments have also moved to create monopolies in the industry as powerful buyers of drugs for controlling expenditure in states’ health care systems (Smith, 2012). Therefore, political arena influences regulations concerning practices of pharmaceutical business and depends on government practices that supports healthcare as an important contributor to welfare of the nation. Political goodwill from the government is important for the pharmaceutical industry especially with regard to patent from period covering experiments to release into the market. Renewal of patents is a concern for manufacturers in the industry especially due to the long period it takes for manufacturers to conduct research, test, then release drugs for human consumption. Given that patents exist for approximately twenty years, political goodwill is necessary for the renewal of such contracts to allow manufacturers proceed

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Discussion Questions Week 5 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 2

Discussion Questions Week 5 - Essay Example They select fruit juice. Passing the grocery shelves to explore options, the consumer sees fruit juice on the Sunshine label and picks up the bottle only to realize in the post-purchase situation that the product did not fulfill their needs. The ethical problem in this situation is one of being misled and the company should reconsider new positioning tactics which are low cost and easy to incorporate. Instead of focusing on the product’s attributes, a new positioning tactic should be decided which focuses less on the product and more on quality. Rather than calling Sunshine a fruit juice, it could be marketed as a quality fruit juice substitute to undo any negative public relations damage done by the consumer and government groups. In this situation it was probably not an intentional deception, however the company does maintain the responsibility to be as truthful as possible to avoid losing customers and reputation. Technology impacts marketing in a variety of ways, including how quickly the marketing message can be received by the consumer as well as how many consumers can be reached. For example, in a form of mass advertising, e-mail and mobile handset devices can target willing buyers who have already shown an interest in the product by signing up for auto promotional alerts. Those consumers who might have visited the company’s website can receive exclusive coupons, as another positioning strategy, to build loyalty in a way that the bricks-and-mortar sales environment could not. Technology also impacts methods and activities of distribution, as new software programs designed to enhance internal warehousing functions can minimize labor costs associated in the supply chain or any other number of cost reductions. More efficient external partners can minimize the risks and costs of marketing. This is an important improvement when marketing budget is on the line. From a business to business view, technology such as the VoIP, or voice

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Strategy and Competition Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Strategy and Competition - Case Study Example In 2008, the company recorded revenue of $ 705 million which is far better when compared to 2004’s $9.7 million (Ivey, 2010, p.8). This was attributed to the support that several authorities within the world have given which promoted the execution of the PV technology. Canadian Solar Company has been experiencing losses over the past few years though its revenues have grown by more than 135 percent over the years (Ivey, 2010, p.8). These loses have been attributed to the high competition around the world which have contributed to a decrease in the company’s market share (Ivey, 2010, p.9). The management under the leadership of Dr. Qu is faced with the mandate of turning the losses into profits amid the high international competition and economic crisis by formulating and executing a viable profit plan. No business can operate in a vacuum. Each and every business requires an environment to operate in. After a thorough analysis, the external environment of Canadian solar company consist of the political environment, the technological environment, the social environment, the economical environment, competitors in the industry and the industry itself. According to Porter’s five forces model, Industry encompasses the competitors, the suppliers, the consumers or the customers, technology available and the restrictions available for entry and exit in the industry by firms. The market consists of potential customers who include the domestic users and commercial users. Canadian Solar incorporation produces a wide variety of products such as the industrial and automotive and consumer products (Ivey, 2010, p.6) to suffice the customer’s needs. The various authorities in the different countries have greatly promoted and encouraged production of and the technology of the PV cells. Most of the countries across the universe in 2008 and 2009 provided incentives for the development of the technology e.g. China and Canada (Ivey, 2010, p.7). Government

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Reflection essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 3

Reflection - Essay Example The State presented the second charge on grounds that it was in general public interest that Bell be kept behind bars. The State supported their information that Bell had been convicted of First degree robbery, Third degree robbery, and possession of narcotics with the intent of selling them (STATE OF CONNECTICUT v. ARNOLD BELL, 2011). The State also presented information that Bell was released on supervision from Court when he was charged with the murder of Fumiati. So, the trial court heard the case for the second charge â€Å"whether the history of Bell conducted was of nature that he should be kept behind bars for an extended period† (STATE OF CONNECTICUT v. ARNOLD BELL, 2011). The trial court decided that it would be of best interest that Bell be kept behind bars for an extended period under 53a-35a. Bell appealed to this decision of the court claiming that it had violated his basic constitutional rights and that it was under the jury to decide whether to prolong the sentence rather than the trial court. The court agreed to Bell’s claim that it was indeed unconstitutional and remanded the second part of the case for a new hearing. The remand trial was unsuccessful as the jury failed to come up to a unanimous verdict, so a new trial was ordered. Bell asked for the second charge to be lifted on grounds that it was unconstitutional. On the new trial, both parties presented their justifications however, the jury concluded that there was sufficient evidence that Bell was guilty of crime and should serve a prolong sentence in view of public interest i.e. forty years imprisonment. The case’s decision on the first part i.e. the defendant was found guilty of murder and crime was justified as sufficient evidence was provided by the State on the matter. The trial court’s decision on the second part was indeed unconstitutional, and it needed the consent of the jury to prolong

Monday, September 23, 2019

Analyzes pages Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Analyzes pages - Essay Example When one considers the role transportation plays in the global dissemination of goods and services, it is but natural to conclude that those nations that constitute the hub of international shipping and road routes are poised to benefit much owing to their geographical location. According to Warf, globalization signifies a â€Å"†¦ unprecedented growth in interconnectedness, of flows of capital, goods, people and information across those borders†¦ (Warf 271).† Being geographically located at important points on the international trade routes makes a nation have access to the global goods and services and the commensurate influences they bring in their wake (Warf 284). Thereby, being exposed to the global trading activities, such nations but naturally tend to accrue economic efficiency that is the hallmark of globalization owing to having a ready access to a wide range of goods and services at a low cost, the economies of scale and the competitive advantage that goes with them. Such nations are also more exposed to diverse ideas, philosophies and cultures (Warf 284). Geographically speaking, being the primary producer of a specific resource also makes a nations accrue the fruits of globalization. For instance, considering the concentration of the petroleum industry in the Middle East, the nations in this region are bound to be influenced by global trends and ideas and are relatively more susceptible to globalization. However, the thing that needs to be kept in mind is that many a time geography may also impede globalization. For instance the regions where the transportation routes and communications technologies are not well developed like say the sub-Saharan nations, owing to economic, political, cultural or climatic reasons, may not cull out the benefits of globalization. This is because such regions are not conducive to the free flow of goods and services, people and ideas for globalization is about,

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Political Disputes by 1860 Essay Example for Free

Political Disputes by 1860 Essay During the 1800s, Americans in the North and South often had conflict but could no longer resolve their political disputes through compromise by the year 1860. In this time period, compromise was not an option because slavery and states rights caused political disputes between the north and south.The two political parties in the north and south lost their ability to cooperate and by the mid 1800s increased the issue of the division of the states. The political view on slavery and states rights grew as compromise between the north and south political parties began to collapse during the mid 19th century. Henry Clay stated that it is impossible for South Carolina to become an independent state. (Doc A) A report of the American Anti-Slavery Society was opposed to slavery naming slave owners as man stealers and believed that slaves should be free. (Doc B) Political compromise was not greatly effected by their belief but the Compromise of 1850 resulted in the Fugitive Slave Law being passed which caused the collapse in the political parties. The issue of slavery continued to increase as compromise slowly disintegrated. Abolitionism increased by the encouragement of Frederick Douglass, a leader, who promoted freedom for all slaves. Also, Uncle Toms Cabin published by Harriet Beecher started up abolitionism in the North while the South to oppose against abolitinists. Senator Daniel Webster who is opposed to secession stated that the North is not complied with the Fugitive Slave Law. (Doc D) In addition, a New York Tribune comparing working class men in the north to southern gentlemen (Doc F) caused more conflict between the states over the issue of slavery. The division of the states over the issue of slavery enhanced the collapse of compromise between the North and South political parties.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Elie Wiesel- Night Essay Example for Free

Elie Wiesel- Night Essay In one scene taken from the novel Night, Elie Wiesel conveys a powerful experience based on his first arrival at Auschwitz. The beginning of this scene starts off with dialog and this technique is also used much throughout the rest of the scene. The use of this literary technique allows the reader to become submerged within the moment Wiesel is describing. The reader experiences the moment just as Wiesel himself might have experienced it at the time which creates a more suspenseful feeling in the scene. Each sentence of dialog allows the reader to be in the moment because we are gathering pieces of the story just as the character is. The reader has become the character in their mind and this allows the situations and emotions that the actual character experiences to affect the reader on a much deeper and personal level. The author does not use a great deal of descriptive imagery either. We are shown more of the characters inner conflict rather than a detailed depiction of the setting itself. This further reinforces the fact that the reader is in a sense going through these conflicts with the character. It is much more effective to convey the horrors of the concentration camp through the emotions of the character rather than actually give a descriptive setting. For example, when Wiesel writes, Not far from us, flames were leaping up from a ditch . . . I saw it with my own eyes . . . those children in the flames. (P30) You would think that the author would describe more in depth, the horror being witnessed, but instead he uses the characters reaction to this scene to portray the nightmare. I pinched my face. Was I still alive? Was I awake? I could not believe it. How could it be possible for them to burn people, children and for the world to keep silent? No, none of this could be true. It was a nightmare.(P30) We experience the characters feelings as if they were our own, because the author has already established a base from the dialog that connects us more deeply to the story. The inner conflict of the character toward the end of the scene though, when he seems certain he is going to be burned in the crematory, holds the greatest preponderance of any other part of the scene. The character is waiting for his death, and as he draws nearer to his demise his inner thoughts are broken up by the systematic rhythm of his final steps. The  author is using the repetition of his steps to build suspense. At each step, layer upon layer of tension is added. The reader leans further to the edge of their seat if you will, holding their breath as the moment of truth draws nearer and nearer until a mere two steps away from certain death, the character is pulled out of harms way and directed to the concentration camp barracks. Yes, the imminent danger of death has passed, but the reader has now come to realize the hopelessness of being captive in what William Styron referred to in his essay Hell reconsidered, as basically hell on earth, otherwise known as Auschwitz. At the conclusion of the scene Wiesel uses parallelism of the sentence structure, Never shall I . . . , and then continues on to list all of the atrocities that still haunt the character to this day. Each line stated is like another blow to the characters and the readers emotions. Again, the danger of certain death had passed, and we know that he survived the nightmare, but now all of these things are forever etched inside the characters being. Never shall I forget the little faces of the children, whose bodies I saw turned into wreaths of smoke . . . Never shall I forget those flames which consumed my faith forever . . . Never shall I forget those moments which murdered my God and my soul and turned my dreams to dust.(P32) He physically may have survived, but has his soul? The authors effective use of dialog, parallelism, and a detailed description of the characters inner conflict allows the reader to become so connected to the character themselves, that this ending point of the scene leaves us with such an utter sense of what the character actually experienced, that the power of the scene quite literally leaves one speechless. Through the use of all of these things the author clearly delivers a most compelling and powerful scene.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Whatever You Are Be A Good One English Literature Essay

Whatever You Are Be A Good One English Literature Essay A good narrator has the ability to distance himself from the rest of the audience and to be able to describe things in detail. While the narrator inThe Great Gatsby; Nick Caraway, refrains from going into detail about his personal thoughts, he does however, explain the book in great detail. At the beginning of the book, Nick describes what happens to Gatsby in a general synopsis which shows to the reader how literate Nick is. Nick, like many characters in The Great Gatsby battles between internal and external forces which shows the conflicts he goes through throughout the book. The battle between his morals and the unnatural people in the book is a major theme that occurs throughout. However, as a narrator inThe Great Gatsby, can Nick be considered a reliable narrator? Nick Caraway is a reliable and suitable narrator because of the amount of detail he goes into, his non-judgemental honest, and tolerant attitude which makes him a trustworthy character. And as the novel progresses, he faces inner and external battles with himself and those around him showing that he is rational and a natural character.In the first few pages alone, F Scott Fitzgerald was able to portray how literate Nick is and how he is a suitable narrator. The ability of Nick to describe the events that take place around him in an unrushed, logical manner shows that Nick is a reliable narrator.Nick describes the novel in great detail, allowing the reader to picture what hesees and how he feels. He found the house, a weather-beaten [cardboard bungalow] at eighty a month (Fitzgerald 9). Within the first few pages, Nick easily describes what his house looks like and the living conditions that hes in. I enjoyed looking at her. She was a slender, small-breasted girl, with an erect carriage, which she accentuated by throwing her body. Her grey sun-strained eyes looked back at me [with a charming, discontented face] (Fitzgerald16). It seems that Nick is talented in describing every detail that he sees, and during this meeting between Nick, Daisy, Tom and the ever-so-charming Jordan Baker, provides a Nick an insight into the type of lives that Daisy, Tom and Jordan actually live. With this insight, the reader insinuates that Nick feels an awkw ardness in the conversation; as if Daisy, Tom and Jordan are trying very hard to keep themselves and their guest Nick, entertained that is, until dinner is served. They were here, [making only a polite pleasant effort to entertain or be entertained]. They knew that presently dinner would be over and a little later the evening too would be over and casually put away (Fitzgerald 16). The quote also indicates how Nick can pick up on small details and uses them to understand what is going on. This ability allows Nick and the reader to completely understand what is going on at all times in the novel. Fitzgerald portrays the symbols in the novel through the narrator Nick, who is able to describe things in great detail and in an unflawed, seaming less manner. Standing behind him Michaelis saw with a shock that he was looking at the eyes of Doctor T. J. Eckleburg which had just emerged pale and enormous from the dissolving night.God sees everything, repeated Wilson (Fitzgerald 152). One of the major symbols in The Great Gatsby are the eyes of Doctor T.J. Eckleburg, who is interpreted as the god or the one person that oversees everybody and everything they do. He is known as the one looking down and judging the American society and in the end of the novel; Fitzgerald shows through Nick that the eyes represent a sense of direction that youre currently in. To Tom, the eyes represent how he is successful and is living the American Dream; however, too Wilson, the eyes mock him and how he desperately needs to leave the valley of ash and move east. This is why he is always asking for Toms car which is his segue to a new and improved life. Nick also is able to determine how Gatsby failed to achieve the American Dream. Gatsbybelieved in the green light, the orgastic future that year by year recedes before us. It eluded us then, but thats no matter-tomorrow we will run faster, stretch out our arms fartherà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦. And one fine morning (Fitzgerald171). He had come a lo ng way to this blue lawn and his dream must have seemed so close that he could hardly fail to grasp it. He did not know that it was already behind him, somewhere back in that vast obscurity beyond the city, where the dark fields of the republic rolled on under the night (Fitzgerald 171). Nick believes that Gatsby was blinded with his need to have Daisy to complete his dream. As Gatsby became closer to Daisy, he became more careless, which led to his downfall. -And it occurred to me that there was no difference between men, in intelligence or race, so profound as the difference between the sick and the well (Fitzgerald 133). Near the end of the novel, Nick realizes through the use of heat [which is another major symbol in the novel] that Tom and Wilson arent that different and both of them are going through the same things. The ability of Nick to determine symbols allows him to be a reliable and suitable narrator, but also his trustworthy appearance allows him to gather information t o keep the pace of the novel fast-paced. In addition to Nicks ability to describe things in detail, his trustworthy appearance allows Nick to be portrayed as the perfect narrator for The Great Gatsby.The fact that Tom allows Nick to see his mistress and meet her indicates that Tom trusts Nick. Not only does Tom trust Nick, but Gatsby also trusts him as well and its proven through their conversation when Gatsby confides in Nick about his love for Daisy. Gatsby also states how he actually gets his money and how he deals with the shady character; Mister Wolfshiem. Meyer Wolfshiem? No, hes a gambler. Gatsby hesitated, and then added coolly: Hes the man who fixed the Worlds Series back in 1919 (Fitzgerald 79). Though Nick is in disbelief when Gatsby tells him this; it proves that Nick is indeed, a trustworthy character and that Gatsby truly trusts Nick. Throughout the novel, Gatsby doesnt have much interaction with a variety of people and it means that Gatsby isnt very sociable; even though he throws huge, extravagant parties. T o emphasize, Gatsby only confides in Nick and this shows how close Nick and Gatsby truly were. We were close friends (Fitzgerald 179). It seems that not only Tom and Gatsby trust Nick, but Jordan does as well. I was bridesmaid. I came into her room half an hour before the bridal dinner, and found her lying on her bed as lovely as the June night in her flowered dress-and as drunk as a monkey. She had a bottle of sauterne in one hand and a letter in the other (Fitzgerald 82). Jordan is the driving factor for Nick to change throughout the novel. Her unnatural behavior is what attracts Nick to her and the fact that both Nick and Jordan are dating each other also proves that Jordan trusts Nick. Fitzgerald has rendered Nick as a trustworthy man in order to prove how unnatural and corrupted the people around him are. It seems that through Nick, the reader can see how Fitzgerald wants to portray how trustworthy Nick is, and the reader is able to see this because every major character in the novel somehow entrusts Nick with something significant. Because of this, Nick can be considered a reliable narrator. Nick faces internal and external battles throughout the book which states the obvious; Nick is not only a narrator in the novel, but also a character that is facing similar problems that the other characters are also going through. One of the major issues he faces is right at the beginning, which is something his father told him. In my younger and more vulnerable years my father gave me some advice that Ive been turning over in my mind ever since.Whenever you feel like criticizing any one, he told me, just remember that all the people in this world havent had the advantages that youve had' (Fitzgerald 7). Throughout the novel, Nick always holds back from criticising a person, which is the one thing that makes him flawed. He misinterprets the quote from his father and believes to have some higher-moral class than everyone else around him which is the reason why he is so interested of the rich. His interest in the unnatural increases as the novel progresses and it can be seen more easi ly the more Nick interacts with them. Nick undergoes an internal battle when he first sees Gatsby. He smiled understandingly-much more than understandingly. It was one of those rare smiles with a quality of eternal reassurance in it, that you may come across four or five times in life (Fitzgerald 53). During his first meeting with Gatsby, Nick was astonished by Gatsby. During the party, the guests gave Nick bad vibes about Gatsby; however, he ignores them and continues to be intrigued by him. Nick knows that Gatsby is a bootlegger and a cheat, but he still enjoys his company and because of this; the morals of Nick and his ego eat at each other until the very ending where Nick decides to stay away from Gatsby evidently, its the same day that Gatsby ends up dead. In the ending, he faces external battles with everyone he sees. Gatsbys father isnt as sad as he should be and Nick thinks that Gatsbys father fails to understand that Gatsby is truly dead and never coming back. Nick tries t o find Daisy, who, with Tom, has left to go on a vacation and finds that suspicious. His relationship with Jordan has crumbled and it seems that even Meyer Wolfshiems attitude towards Gatsbys death has angered Nick. Overall, Nick battles with his inner self and those around him, supporting the claim that Nick is a reliable narrator because he is also a character in the story itself. He feels and experiences everything that occurs and because of this, Nick is an ideal narrator. Nick Carraway is a reliable narrator because of the fact that he is trustworthy, battles with his inner self and those around him and has an ability to describe the events that take place in great detail. Nick is also somewhat biased in a way, and because of this, it doesnt make him irrational, but quite the opposite. The way Fitzgerald introduces everything and how he tells the story through the character of Nick, it emphasises the symbols, the themes and even the meaning of the story and because of this, Nick Carraway is an ideal and reliable narrator in the novel The Great Gatsby.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

machiavelli :: essays research papers fc

Niccolo Machiavelli Statesman and Political Philosopher 1469 - 1527 No enterprise is more likely to succeed than one concealed from the enemy until it is ripe for execution. —Machiavelli from The Art of War I was born on May 3, 1469 in Florence, Italy. I was a political philosopher and diplomat during the Renaissance, and I’m most famous for my political treatise, The Prince (1513), that has become a cornerstone of modern political philosophy. My life was very interesting. I lived a nondescript childhood in Florence, and mine main political experience in my youth was watching Savanarola from afar. Soon after Savanarola was executed, I entered the Florentine government as a secretary. My position quickly rose, however, and was soon engaging in diplomatic missions. I met many of the important politicians of the day, such as the Pope and the King of France, but none had more impact on me than a prince of the Papal States, Cesare Borgia. Borgia was a cunning, cruel man, very much like the one portrayed in The Prince. I did not truly like Borgia's policies, but I thought that with a ruler like Borgia the Florentines could unite Italy, which was my goal throughout life. Unfortunately for myself, I was dismissed from office when the Medici came to rule Florence and the Republic was overthrown. The lack of a job forced me to switch to writing about politics instead of being active. My diplomatic missions were my last official gove rnment positions. When I lost my office, desperately I wanted to return to politics. I tried to gain the favor of the Medici by writing a book of what I thought were the Medici's goals and dedicating it to them. And so The Prince was written for that purpose. Unfortunately, the Medici didn't agree with what the book said, so I was out of a job. But when the public saw the book, they were outraged. The people wondered how cruel a man could be to think evil thoughts like the ones in The Prince, and this would come back to haunt me when I was alive and dead. However, if the people wanted to know what my self really stood for, they should have read my "Discourses on Livy", which explains my full political philosophy. But not enough people had and have, and so the legacy of The Prince continues to define my person to the general public.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Destiny :: essays research papers

Destiny was a misunderstood girl. She was a depressed, lonely, and hopeless young woman. Her mom was strung out on drugs, and her father was nowhere to be found. She hated her life, and she hated everyone else, even the people who tried to help her out.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Destiny stayed in one the most dangerous neighborhoods in Detroit. A couple days couldn’t past, without seeing or hearing about a fight or killing. She feared walking home from school everyday. She was seventeen years old, a senior in high school, who could only read at an eighth grade level. Since her mom was never really around, she would have to stay home from school to look after her baby sister.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Destiny, where’s mom, said Kisha.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"I don’t know Kisha said Destiny.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Well I miss mom, she’s always gone.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"I know, I know, don’t worry I’m here Kisha; I’ll always be here.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  It had been a few days since Destiny had seen her mom. She was very frustrated. She couldn’t believe that her mom couldn’t even call her. She cried whenever her sister was not in the room.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Why is this happening to me?†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"I didn’t do anything to deserve this kind of life, cried Destiny.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  It was three o’clock in the morning when the phone rung. She answered the phone. It was her mom on the other end.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Hey baby, I’m sorry about not calling you sooner.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Yeah, well where are you at mom Kisha keeps asking about you.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Well Destiny I was just calling to tell you that I’m not coming home.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"What?†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"I’m going to New York, I need to get away from here.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Mom, what about us?†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Honey you have to take over now. I love you.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Her mom hung up, those were the last three words Destiny would ever hear her mom say. She tossed and turned the rest of the night. Kisha came into the room to wake up Destiny. She had overslept, which made her and Kisha miss school. Kisha could see the pain in Destiny’s eyes. She knew she had to tell why their mom wouldn’t be coming home and that she moving to New York. Destiny told Kisha the horrible news. They both wept and held each other until they both fell asleep.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  A couple months had passed, Destiny struggled to make ends meet. She had to borrow food from her neighbors just so that they could eat every night. She knew that she would have to do something, or they would lose everything.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Big Fish Film Study Creative Assignment

Creative Writing Assignment 1. At the end of the film Will reconciles with his dying father. Write the eulogy that Will delivers at his father's funeral. Consider what Will would say about what kind of father Ed was, what kind of man he was, what lessons he taught, or the type of man Will strives to be. Losing a loved one is one of the most difficult things we can go through, so much more is it is a parent. No words can express what I am feeling right now and I’m sure that in time I will be able to accept the facts.My father was one of those creative and story telling types. His creative sorties were the truth in our house. I used to love listening to the invogorating sroties he would tell me every night before bed. He would tell me that everything he said he did was true and not to let anyone tell me otherwise. As I grew older, I slowly drifted apart from him, not caring about the nonsense he called his life. I soon learned that the most important thing that i had was my fami ly, weather we included him in it or not he would always be my dad.Though he may never have said it out loud but I believe he told these stories to be remembered. I am the person i am today because of eveything his legends taught me. As most of you may know my father always had something to say. I remember when we were little and my father was gone on business quite often, at that point in time is when we got totally separated that we could barely carry on a conversation as friends let alone family. About 3 months ago when my father got very ill and my wife and i came to stay with my parents we grew much closer again.He told me stories i had heard many times befoare and ones i had not yet heard. I discovered that the purpose of these legends is to be passed on throughout the generations, to be remembered adn to teach us a little something about life and ourselves. He showed strength until the end and still had some enlightening words for us. I promise that I will continue what my fa ther has started, and i will tell adventerous stories whenever i can. I know I’ll be filling huge shoes but I think I can do it.Let’s just remember everything that my father shared with us. And let’s be happy that he has finally in a better place. Critical Responses 1. â€Å"You are a big fish in a small pond, but this here is the ocean† –old Edward Bloom I believe that in this quote the fish represents Sandra, Ed’s wife. When Edward is in Spectre and he sees a naked woman where Jenny sees a fish. I also think that the fish is not real but a metaphor; it is whatever you want the most, and at the time Edward was looking for Sandra. 2. â€Å"And that was the lesson I learned that day†¦ he day my son was born. Sometimes the only way to catch an uncatchable woman, is to offer her a wedding ring. † –Edward Bloom In this text the fish represents Sandra as well because everyone says that the fish is uncatchable, which is true bec ause it isn’t real. Sandra was the uncatchable fish at one point because at first Edward didn’t know who she was and when he finally found her and she was engaged. When Edward offered Sandra a wedding ring that is where we see him actually catching the fish because she is now catchable.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Remember the Titans: an Analysis of Different Leadership Styles

Remember the Titans: an analysis of different leadership styles This paper shows the different leadership styles and how it can affect the team results. both the leaders try to motivate the team, one tries to motivate them extrinsically and the other one intrinsically. The paper says there is no right or wrong style of leadership, but a true leader motivates others to develop those leadership qualities in them and do better. This paper gives a description of the coaches and the team players who showed leadership qualities even in the most difficult situations because they knew that their team needs them. It also describes the contribution on these players in their victory. They forgot their difference and played as a team. There were no black and whites in the team. They played as a team and came out with flying colors. It signifies the qualities of a true leader, as right before the final match they lost their captain and the coach gave his players to play even in those difficult times. | * Remember the titans Herman Boone Leadership concerns with implementing a strategy. Boone believed that cooperative working of the team is very crucial to win. He also believed that it was important for the members of a team to know and understand each other. He had a clear vision, he wanted to have a strong team and win. For a successful team he had to ensure that all the team members work together and respect each other. To achieve his it was important for the team to work hard and be committed. His strategy of being a transactional lead and punishing the players when they were wrong or did not meet his standard, helped him control the team through power. His bureaucratic nature was a part of his strategy to manage people. He knew that the players had love towards the game and they all wanted to be in the team. His used their love towards the game as a motivator to make sure they cooperated. When he was announced the head coach, he approached Bill Yoast and offered him assistant coaches position. He was aware that Yoast was a good coach, more than that he knew that the white players were loyal to Yoast and would never join the team without him. The presence of Yoast as assistant coach would also help him deal with the with players and community. His leadership qualities come from who is as a person and who he is as a person comes from his experiences. Hatred had destroyed his family, he believed that if the team did not come together it will be destroyed as well. He identifies the most important factor without which there would be no team. A part of his leadership was to involve the people to do things which they won’t do in ordinary situation. Leadership involves resolving dispute between groups and settling conflicts. Boone used threat initial to get things moving. He was focused and worked towards achieving his goals. His steadiness, firmness and consistency helped members of the team to not stray away from their objective. Slowly it is seen that he is actually a transformational leaders using punishment as means to get the team members to cooperate and trust each other, which they would have in an ordinary situation. This is first seen when he pushes the team members bond by having them share rooms and later when he wants them to learn about each other. He also uses inspiration as a motivation strategy when he talks about his family and how because of hatred he had lost them. He also uses the self-concept model and pushes the players to be like their ideal self. His ability to think long term and plan strategies are qualities that a good leader has. Boone’s leadership effectiveness is seen at various stages, it has been demonstrated through team performance, the team won various games and became a strong team. The teams ability to deal during crises, when the team got back from the camp, due to external pressure (community) they were falling apart, however the teams came together as the could that their union as a team was worthwhile. He was honest and believed in the message. His honestly is displayed when he talking to Dr. Dave and is offered the position of head coach, he tells him that Yoast is a good coach and he didn’t want to take his place. His believe in message has been displayed through his strategies and his consistency in his actions to reach his goal. Bill Yoast Yoast was dedicated to football and had gained loyalty from his team and white community. He was respected and had demonstrated his effective leadership through several wins. He was also nominated for hall of fame for his exceptional leadership. He cared for the people in his team. When he had he opportunity to leave and take up a position for head coach he did not because he was worried about the players in his team. He considered them like his own kids and was concerned for them and did not want to abandon them. He takes the offer of the assistant coach to ensure that his team members are a part of the new team. His initial objective was to ensure that his boys are a part of the team and are well taken care off. He at first does not agree with the rigid behavior of Boone. Yoast thinks that Boone was crossing the fine line that is between tough and crazy. He influenced his team through inspirational appeals. He spoke to Julius about his friend that was killed and sympathized to him and connected with him by saying that he knows that friends don’t come easy. On the other hand he also used if then reward and threats to get what he wants. He did not tolerate disobedience and punished whenever needed. Boone did effect Yoast’s way of doing things. As time passed by and Yoast saw what Boone was uniting the team and Boone bought into the plan. He at one point undermined Boone’s decision and asked Pete play for the offence side. He later learnt that by doing this he was not helping but might be weakening Pete. Yoast learnt about leadership from watching Boone. Yoast then works towards achieving the same goals and vision set by Boone, which was to have a strong team and could only be achieved through unity among the team. He at the end of the final game unites the whole team by working with coach Boone. The offence and the defense team that worked independently with Yoast and Boone respectively were then treated as a whole team and coached by both the coaches. Gerry Bertier Gerry the captain of the football team Titans was very influential and had credibility and power to sway the decision of the white players. When Gerry sees the benefits of being united and working together, he starts to believe in the message and works towards it. When Gerry gets mad at Julius for his attitude, Julius tells him that attitudes reflects leadership. His first initiative to be an effective captain is witnessed when he gets mad at Ray for not blocking. When back from the camp Gerry still tries to interact with the blacks and keep his team united. He leaves his girlfriend to be with his new friends, this commitment towards his team helps build trust among them. Cutting off Ray from his team helps him ensure that the team stays united as even one wrong person in the team can weaken the team as a whole. Julius Cambell Julius had a very strong personality, he influenced the blacks through power. Initially Julius is in the team for his own benefits. Later when Gerry took the initiative to bond with him, Julius responded in a positively. Julius once saw the importance of a cooperative team he also started to believe in the vision which was created by Boone. Julius uses rational persuasion to influence Gerry to take up the role of an effective leader. He teaches Gerry about the blacks culture and the way they joke. In the locker room when the boys were joking, Gerry found it offending but Julius intervenes and helped Gerry understand that it’s a part of their culture. He along with Gerry tries to sought fights between blacks and white. He also along with Gerry motivates the entire team. Julius and Gerry’s friendship inspires other to bond and work together as a team. In the final game when Boone tells them that whether win or lose they are all winners, Julius motivates the entire team by reminding their objective, which was to be perfect and nothing less as a team. This clarity of vision helps the team to try harder to win. Lewis Lastik Lewis had a charismatic personality. He did not see any difference between the blacks and the whites. His attitude was what made him different from everyone. He was a blessed child in gods family, according to (Rave) Jerry. He was on no one’s side, he was with everybody. This different thinking made him likable, especially with the blacks. He stood out in the crowd and did not care about what others think. He was nice to everyone and did relate with the blacks through music. He used subtle ingratiation when he talked about people. When coach Bonne asked him to talk about his black friends he said that Jerry was called Rave because he prayed a lot, he also acknowledge Jerry as a brainy guy. These gestures made him a likeable person. He also along with Blue made a personnel appeal to his team mates to stay united and not let the external forces such as the community break them. When the black guys were joking about Gerry’s mom which is part of their culture, Lewis joins in which shows that he is aware of the think of culture blacks have and this also his him bond with his black team mates better. He attracted people who shared the same view because he had qualities of a charismatic leader. Ronnie Bass â€Å"Sunshine† One of the characteristic of a leader is to getting people involved in do something that they won’t do in an ordinary situation. Ronnie when first meets the members of his team calls one of the black team member bro, which resonated well among the blacks and helped Ronnie be the part of the team quickly. Ronnie takes the united vision of the team a step up, he takes his friends to a restaurant where blacks are not allowed. This was probably not a planned strategy but when he and his friends are not allowed to dine in the restaurant. His black friends are hurt because of this humiliation and upset. They blame him partially for putting them through this. Ronnie later jets his dad along with his black friends and threats the owner of the restaurant to charge with a number of civil law violations. He ensures that this time he has a backup when he went to the restaurant to dine with his friends in form of a threat. His initiation action is a characteristic of leader.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

History of Database Essay

Storing data and files is an important aspect of business for various industries of the world. The storage of data in computers or database system is proven to be cost effective. Large or small database needs a system which will control the processes in the databases. Such applications are called database management systems (DBMS). From the time it was designed, the need for a good DBMS has increased because of the escalating number of data stored in the database. There are many available DBMS that private corporations use today. Indeed, database management systems have evolved due to the demand for the services that these systems provide. Database Management System A database management system is a collection of programs which enables the user or a network of users to mange files and data inside the database. The management includes storing, deleting, modifying, and extracting information from the database. It manages the request of the user and other programs installed in the computer or in the network. The DBMS ensures the integrity and reliability of the data. Some DBMS also provide security to the database (Tatum, 2003). There are many different forms of database management systems available in the market today because of the different private and public organizations or corporations which require different kinds of DBMS. However, there are four important elements that every DBMS have. These are the modeling language, data structures, data query language and mechanism that allows transactions (Tatum, 2003). The modeling language is the element that pertains to the approach used by the DBMS to communicate with the database. There are several approaches available today including hierarchical, relational, network and object-oriented (Christiansen, 2005). The hierarchical model makes use of pointers to navigate between stored data which is stored hierarchically in a downward tree. The structure is very inflexible in changing data and access requirements. The data is accessed by navigating from the root data to the data on the lower part of the hierarchy. In addition, the user should know the structure of the system before he or she can make an inquiry (Hsior, n. d. ). The network model is like the hierarchical model. It uses pointers to navigate through the data but it does not use a downward tree structure. It has limited flexibility in changing data and accessing requirements. Access to the data is accomplished by navigating through the structure and issuing specific statements to find specific data types in relation to the starting point of the structure (Hsior, n. d. ). In relational model, the data is stored in the two-dimensional tables. The data in the relational method is manipulated based on the relational theory of mathematics. The data types in this model are assigned with a symbolic primary key or foreign key construction. The referential integrity of the model is supported by the relational theory of mathematics. This model is very flexible to the data changes and access requirements. And the access to data types is based on relational algebra and relational calculus statements (Hsior, n. d. ). And lastly, the object-oriented model stores data as objects. This model is more direct than its predecessors since the design is very close to the real world model. The object-oriented model allows an easier way to maintain the database. The identification of objects is assigned by the system which protects the consistency of the data; while in the relational systems, it is assigned by the user. The database does not only store data but a whole application as well. Moreover, it can be executed inside the database. The concept of inheritance in this model makes code easily reusable. Furthermore, the object-oriented model is more practical and more economical (Hsior, n. d. ). The data structures are the elements that a DBMS manages inside the database. Different databases require different data structures which different DBMS manage. Data structures include individual records, files, fields and objects such as media files. DBMS need to define data structures to ensure the integrity of the data while it is being accessed. The data query language is the element which takes care of the security of the database. It monitors login data, assigns access rights and privileges, and defines the criteria for the add data function in the data base (Tatum, 2003). History The origin of database can be traced back to libraries, governments and other institutions that require storage of data. The DBMS was designed to ensure the integrity, security and accessibility of data. The design of the DBMS constantly evolves through time. It aims to create a design of which has better reliability and performance (Mann, 2003). In the 1800, Jose Marie Jacquard had created a machine, Jacquard Loom, which produced fabric from stored design from a punch card. The data of the design is stored in punch cards where holes represent the details in the design. In this way, the Jacquard Loom automatically designs the loom depending on the punch card in use (Tatum, 2003). Similar technology was used in the 1890 as Herman Hollerith created a mechanism that recorded information in a punch card which was coded numerically. The idea is that the data can punch in specific locations in the card, and then it can be counted and sorted automatically. This design was used by the US government to perform the census. Hollerith’s company solely produces the machine that records the data in the punch card and another machine that tabulates and sorts the cards. This company is renamed to IBM. The company prospered as it was able to produce machines that can record data for business and government institutions during 1910 towards 1960. The systems have records of every household and other data needed for the analysis of the society (Tatum, 2003). By 1955, many business and government institutions have floors dedicated for the storage of punched cards and floors for the machines. The machines work with punch-board which control accumulator registers that could reproduce punched cards or put data on paper. Some very large companies accumulate tons of data everyday that costs millions on storage. Thus, the need for a new technology has become very imminent (Tatum, 2003). In the 1960s, private organizations and corporations needed computers that have better storage capabilities and computers are proven to be cost effective against ordinary punch cards. In line with this, database administrators needed database management systems to cope with the increasing data storage capacity of computers and the increasing number of data being stored. The hierarchical and network model are the two main data models developed which were used in database management systems during the earlier years. They made use of pointers which was used to navigate through records. In these models, there were difficulties in adding another field in the higher level since it will require rewriting the scheme for access in the lower level data. In this system, the emphasis of the model was placed on the type of data to be processed and not the over all structure of the system. In addition, the user who will need access to the data should know the structure of the database before he can make a query for information (Vaughn, 2003). In the early 1970s, the Edgar F. Codd proposed a relational approach in manipulating data in the database. He published an article entitled ‘A relational model of data for large shared data banks’ which became the foundation in the development of the relational database. The article showed a theory of how to store data in a rectangular or in two-dimensional tables and then use the theory of mathematical sets to operate on it. The relational databases represent the first implementation of the real database management system. Since then, the relation model had been the most popular or standard approach for database management systems (Vaughn, 2003). In the mid-70s, the theory of Codd on relational databases was put into research projects by several competing camps. During this time, the term Relational Database Management System or the RDBMS was coined. During these times, there are two main prototypes based on the relational were developed. These are the System R developed by the IBM and Ingres developed by the University of California at Berkeley. These two prototypes led to different kinds of DBMS. The two lines of DBMS created by the two prototypes used different query languages. IBM’s System R uses the Structured Query Language (SQL) and the UCB’s Ingres uses QUEL short for query language. Also in mid-1970s, Peter P. Chen proposed the Entity-Relationship Model for the database design which gave a new insight in the conceptual models of a database management system. This model gives the designer of the database management system a way to concentrate more on the use of data instead of its logical structure like other method does (Vaughn, 2003). In the early 1980s, the commercialization of the Relational Database Management System began to intensify due to the increasing demand of databases in corporations around the world. The higher demand was caused by the emerging business in the United States and other countries around the world. Another reason is that organizations and corporations had increasing number of data needed to be stored. Businesses rely on computers for their data storage thus a better database management system is needed to manage large databases that these businesses have. At the same time, many companies made some products which give individual users to maintain a small database in their own computer (Vaughn, 2003). In the rest of the 1980s, SQL had become the standard query language for many databases which was caused by the emergence of the local area network. The Oracle Corporation made the first commercial relational database. Moreover, the network and hierarchical models faded to the background. However, there are still others that use the network and hierarchical models (Vaughn, 2003). It was during the early 1990s when the industry of databases had a shakeout and there are only a few companies that survived for offering better products. The most important development on the computer industry was on application builders and programming languages. During these times, the prototype of the object-oriented database management system was introduced. The object-oriented DBMS is conceptualized to handle big and complex data that relational database management systems had a hard time to handle (Vaughn, 2003). In the mid-1990s, the influx of internet use revived the need for database industry. This demand came from internet servers in order to manipulate the large amounts of data which must be made accessible to internet users. Better security and reliability is also needed to protect the client-users and the information itself from corruption and tamper. As such, only a good database management system can provide this. In addition, the database industry during these times has reached the desktop computers in the users’ own homes. This provides desktop computer users to manage their own small database or access the large databases on the internet (Vaughn, 2003). In the late 1990s, the industry prospered in terms of internet sales and database tools. The e-commerce industry boomed since business transactions have been done online. The Online Transaction Processing and the Online Analytical Processing emerged (Vaughn, 2003). However, in the early 21st century, there has been a decline in the internet industry. Nonetheless, the database industry is still growing because the demand for a larger database and better DBMS is steadily growing. There are other interactive applications that emerged during these times. Three companies have dominated the database industry including Microsoft, Oracle and IBM (Vaughn, 2003). Nowadays, huge systems require a good way to manage and analyze data. These databases’ storage capacity for the data now reaches the terrabyte level. Such databases are science databases which hold genome projects, national security, and space exploration data. Shopping online is also one of the common practices today. Millions of buyers participate on this application, thus requiring a larger database and good handling abilities. There are researches today that is said to surpass the capabilities of the SQL. This development will ensure another significant growth in the database industry (Vaughn, 2003). Future Trends Mobile database is now emerging in various ways. This technology will secure a more remote access to database. Additionally, more and more people will access a single database at a time. As such, proper management is needed to ensure the continuous service and to prevent a system crush (Vaughn, 2003). Object-oriented database management system is predicted to dominate the database market as well as other computer markets. The emergence of the use of this model threatens to wipe other database models (Vaughn, 2003). As time goes by, there are certain issues that have risen alongside the creation of larger databases. Ethical issue is one of them; the larger the database is, the harder that people can efficiently manage it. Consequently, it is easier for perpetrators to subtly penetrate a system without being known by the administrators. In addition, some databases use automatic analyzing application which is sometimes unethical to use (Vaughn, 2003). Evidently, the database evolved from simple punched cards to huge mainframes. The advances in database technology have propelled the growing need for large data storage and management tools to access and analyze it. The database management system evolved as billions of information are generated by large business and government institutions everyday. The demand still grows as the internet community is still continuously growing. The future of database industry is very clear – it will continue to prosper and advance as the world continuously develops. References Christiansen, S. (2005). Database Management System. Retrieved April 10, 2009, from http://searchsqlserver. techtarget. com/sDefinition/0,,sid87_gci213669,00. html Hsior, J. (n. d. ). Evolution of Database Systems. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from http://w3. ocit. edu. tw/ben/foxpro6/article/english/ch01/page04. htm Mann, M. (2006). History and Comparison of Relational Database Management Systems. TechnoCircle HVB Information Services. Retrieved April 11, 2009, from http://www. guug. de/lokal/muenchen/2007-05-14/rdbmsc. pdf Tatum, M. (2003). What is DBMS? Retrieved April 10, 2009, from http://www. wisegeek. com/what-is-dbms. htm Vaughn, J. (2003). A short Database History. Hobart and William Smith Colleges. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from http://math. hws. edu/vaughn/cpsc/343/2003/history. html

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Second Foundation 14. Anxiety

Poli placed the breakfast on the table, keeping one eye on the table news-recorder which quietly disgorged the bulletins of the day. It could be done easily enough without loss of efficiency, this one-eye-absent business. Since all items of food were sterilely packed in containers which served as discardable cooking units, her duties vis-a-vis breakfast consisted of nothing more than choosing the menu, placing the items on the table, and removing the residue thereafter. She clacked her tongue at what she saw and moaned softly in retrospect. â€Å"Oh, people are so wicked,† she said, and Darell merely hemmed in reply. Her voice took on the high-pitched rasp which she automatically assumed when about to bewail the evil of the world. â€Å"Now why do these terrible Kalganese† – she accented the second syIlable and gave it a long â€Å"a† – â€Å"do like that? You'd think they'd give a body peace. But no, it's just trouble, trouble, all the time. â€Å"Now look at that headline: ‘Mobs Riot Before Foundation Consulate.' Oh, would I like to give them a piece of my mind, if I could. That's the trouble with people; they just don't remember. They just don't remember, Dr. Darell – got no memory at all. Look at the last war after the Mule died – of course I was just a little girl then – and oh, the fuss and trouble. My own uncle was killed, him being just in his twenties and only two years married, with a baby girl. I remember him even yet – blond hair he had, and a dimple in his chin. I have a trimensional cube of him somewheres- â€Å"And now his baby girl has a son of her own in the navy and most like if anything happens- â€Å"And we had the bombardment patrols, and all the old men taking turns in the stratospheric defense – I could imagine what they would have been able to do if the Kalganese had come that far. My mother used to tell us children about the food rationing and the prices and taxes. A body could hardly make ends meet- â€Å"You'd think if they had sense people would just never want to start it again; just have nothing to do with it. And I suppose it's not people that do it, either; I suppose even Kalganese would rather sit at home with their families and not go fooling around in ships and getting killed. It's that awful man, Stettin. It's a wonder people like that are let live. He kills the old man – what's his name – Thallos, and now he's just spoiling to be boss of everything. â€Å"And why he wants to fight us, I don't know. He's bound to lose – like they always do. Maybe it's all in the Plan, but sometimes I'm sure it must be a wicked plan to have so much fighting and killing in it, though to be sure I haven't a word to say about Hari Seldon, who I'm sure knows much more about that than I do and perhaps I'm a fool to question him. And the other Foundation is as much to blame. They could stop Kalgan now and make everything fine. They'll do it anyway in the end, and you'd think they'd do it before there's any damage done.† Dr. Darell looked up. â€Å"Did you say something, Poli?† Poli's eyes opened wide, then narrowed angrily. â€Å"Nothing, doctor, nothing at all. I haven't got a word to say. A body could as soon choke to death as say a word in this house. It's jump here, and jump there, but just try to say a word-† and she went off simmering. Her leaving made as little impression on Darell as did her speaking. Kalgan! Nonsense! A merely physical enemy! Those had always been beaten! Yet he could not divorce himself of the current foolish crisis. Seven days earlier, the mayor had asked him to be Administrator of Research and Development. He had promised an answer today. Well- He stirred uneasily. Why, himself! Yet could he refuse? It would seem strange, and he dared not seem strange. After all, what did he care about Kalgan. To him there was only one enemy. Always had been. While his wife had lived, he was only too glad to shirk the task; to hide. Those long, quiet days on Trantor, with the ruins of the past about them! The silence of a wrecked world and the forgetfulness of it all! But she had died. Less than five years, all told, it had been; and after that he knew that he could live only by fighting that vague and fearful enemy that deprived him of the dignity of manhood by controlling his destiny; that made life a miserable struggle against a foreordained end; that made all the universe a hateful and deadly chess game. Call it sublimation; he, himself did can it that – but the fight gave meaning to his life. First to the University of Santanni, where he had joined Dr. Kleise. It had been five years well-spent. And yet Kleise was merely a gatherer of data. He could not succeed in the real task – and when Darell had felt that as certainty, he knew it was time to leave. Kleise may have worked in secret, yet he had to have men working for him and with him. He had subjects whose brains he probed. He had a University that backed him. All these were weaknesses. Kleise could not understand that; and he, Darell, could not explain that. They parted enemies. It was well; they had to. He had to leave in surrender – in case someone watched. Where Kleise worked with charts; Darell worked with mathematical concepts in the recesses of his mind. Kleise worked with many; Darell with none. Kleise in a University; Darell in the quiet of a suburban house. And he was almost there. A Second Foundationer is not human as far as his cerebrum is concerned. The cleverest physiologist, the most subtle neurochemist might detect nothing – yet the difference must be there. And since the difference was one of the mind, it was there that it must be detectable. Given a man like the Mule – and there was no doubt that the Second Foundationers had the Mule's powers, whether inborn or acquired – with the power of detecting and controlling human emotions, deduce from that the electronic circuit required, and deduce from that the last details of the encephalograph on which it could not help but be betrayed. And now Kleise had returned into his life, in the person of his ardent young pupil, Anthor. Folly! Folly! With his graphs and charts of people who had been tampered with. He had learned to detect that years ago, but of what use was it. He wanted the arm; not the tool. Yet he had to agree to join Anthor, since it was the quieter course. Just as now he would become Administrator of Research and Development. It was the quieter course! And so he remained a conspiracy within a conspiracy. The thought of Arcadia teased him for a moment, and he shuddered away from it. Left to himself, it would never have happened. Left to himself, no one would ever have been endangered but himself. Left to himself- He felt the anger rising-against the dead Kleise, the living Anthor, all the well-meaning fools- Well, she could take care of herself. She was a very mature little girl. She could take care of herself! It was a whisper in his mind- Yet could she? *** At the moment, that Dr. Darell told himself mournfully that she could, she was sitting in the coldly austere anteroom of the Executive Offices of the First Citizen of the Galaxy. For half an hour she had been sitting there, her eyes sliding slowly about the walls. There had been two armed guards at the door when she had entered with Homir Munn. They hadn't been there the other times. She was alone, now, yet she sensed the unfriendliness of the very furnishings of the room. And for the first time. Now, why should that be? Homir was with Lord Stettin. Well, was that wrong? It made her furious. In similar situations in the book-films and the videos, the hero foresaw the conclusion, was prepared for it when it came, and she – she just sat there. Anything could happen. Anything! And she just sat there. Well, back again. Think it back. Maybe something would come. For two weeks, Homir had nearly lived inside the Mule's palace. He had taken her once, with Stettin's permission. It was large and gloomily massive, shrinking from the touch of life to lie sleeping within its ringing memories, answering the footsteps with a hollow boom or a savage clatter. She hadn't liked it. Better the great, gay highways of the capital city; the theaters and spectacles of a world essentially poorer than the Foundation, yet spending more of its wealth on display. Homir would return in the evening, awed- â€Å"It's a dream-world for me,† he would whisper. â€Å"If I could only chip the palace down stone by stone, layer by layer of the aluminum sponge. If I could carry it back to Terminus- What a museum it would make.† He seemed to have lost that early reluctance. He was eager, instead; glowing. Arcadia knew that by the one sure sign; he practically never stuttered throughout that period. One time, he said, â€Å"There are abstracts of the records of General Pritcher-â€Å" â€Å"I know him. He was the Foundation renegade, who combed the Galaxy for the Second Foundation, wasn't he?† â€Å"Not exactly a renegade, Arkady. The Mule had Converted him.† â€Å"Oh, it's the same thing.† â€Å"Galaxy, that combing you speak of was a hopeless task. The original records of the Seldon Convention that established both Foundations five hundred years ago, make only one reference to the Second Foundation. They say if's located ‘at the other end of the Galaxy at Star's End.' That's all the Mule and Pritcher had to go on. They had no method of recognizing the Second Foundation even if they found it. What madness! â€Å"They have records† – he was speaking to himself, but Arcadia listened eagerly – â€Å"which must cover nearly a thousand worlds, yet the number of worlds available for study must have been closer to a million. And we are no better off-â€Å" Arcadia broke in anxiously, â€Å"Shhh-h† in a tight hiss. Homir froze, and slowly recovered. â€Å"Let's not talk,† he mumbled. And now Homir was with Lord Stettin and Arcadia waited outside alone and felt the blood squeezing out of her heart for no reason at all. That was more frightening than anything else. That there seemed no reason. On the other side of the door, Homir, too, was living in a sea of gelatin. He was fighting, with furious intensity, to keep from stuttering and, of course, could scarcely speak two consecutive words clearly as a result. Lord Stettin was in full uniform, six-feet-six, large-jawed, and hard-mouthed. His balled, arrogant fists kept a powerful time to his sentences. â€Å"Well, you have had two weeks, and you come to me with tales of nothing. Come, sir, tell me the worst. Is my Navy to be cut to ribbons? Am I to fight the ghosts of the Second Foundation as well as the men of the First?† â€Å"I†¦ I repeat, my lord, I am no p†¦ pre†¦ predictor. I†¦ I am at a complete†¦ loss.† â€Å"Or do you wish to go back to warn your countrymen? To deep Space with your play-acting. I want the truth or I'll have it out of you along with half your guts.† â€Å"I'm t†¦ telling only the truth, and I'll have you re†¦ remember, my l†¦ lord, that I am a citizen of the Foundation. Y†¦ you cannot touch me without harvesting m†¦ m†¦ more than you count on.† The Lord of Kalgan laughed uproariously. â€Å"A threat to frighten children. A horror with which to beat back an idiot. Come, Mr. Munn, I have been patient with you. I have listened to you for twenty minutes while you detailed wearisome nonsense to me which must have cost you sleepless nights to compose. It was wasted effort. I know you are here not merely to rake through the Mule's dead ashes and to warm over the cinders you find. ***You came here for more than you have admitted. Is that not true?† Homir Munn could no more have quenched the burning horror that grew in his eyes than, at that moment, he could have breathed. Lord Stettin saw that, and clapped the Foundation man upon his shoulder so that he and the chair he sat on reeled under the impact. â€Å"Good. Now let us be frank. You are investigating the Seldon Plan. You know that it no longer holds. You know, perhaps, that I am the inevitable winner now; I and my heirs. Well, man, what matters it who established the Second Empire, so long as it is established. History plays no favorites, eh? Are you afraid to tell me? You see that I know your mission.† Munn said thickly, â€Å"What is it y†¦ you w†¦ want?† â€Å"Your presence. I would not wish the Plan spoiled through overconfidence. You understand more of these things than I do; you can detect small flaws that I might miss. Come, you will be rewarded in the end; you will have your fair glut of the loot. What can you expect at the Foundation? To turn the tide of a perhaps inevitable defeat? To lengthen the war? Or is it merely a patriotic desire to die for your country?† â€Å"I†¦ I-† He finally spluttered into silence. Not a word would come. â€Å"You will stay,† said the Lord of Kalgan, confidently. â€Å"You have no choice. Wait† – an almost forgotten afterthought – â€Å"I have information to the effect that your niece is of the family of Bayta Darell.† Homir uttered a startled: â€Å"Yes.† He could not trust himself at this point to be capable of weaving anything but cold truth. â€Å"It is a family of note on the Foundation?† Homir nodded, â€Å"To whom they would certainly b†¦ brook no harm.† â€Å"Harm! Don't be a fool, man; I am meditating the reverse. How old is she?† â€Å"Fourteen.† â€Å"So! Well, not even the Second Foundation, or Hari Seldon, himself, could stop time from passing or girls from becoming women.† With that, he turned on his heel and strode to a draped door which he threw open violently. He thundered, â€Å"What in Space have you dragged your shivering carcass here for?† The Lady Callia blinked at him, and said in a small voice, â€Å"I didn't know anyone was with you.† â€Å"Well, there is. I'll speak to you later of this, but now I want to see your back, and quickly.† Her footsteps were a fading scurry in the corridor. Stettin returned, â€Å"She is a remnant of an interlude that has lasted too long. It will end soon. Fourteen, you say?† Homir stared at him with a brand-new horror! Arcadia started at the noiseless opening of a door – jumping at the jangling sliver of movement it made in the comer of her eye. The finger that crooked frantically at her met no response for long moments, and then, as if in response to the cautions enforced by the very sight of that white, trembling figure, she tiptoed her way across the floor. Their footsteps were a taut whisper in the corridor. It was the Lady Callia, of course, who held her hand so tightly that it hurt, and for some reason, she did not mind following her. Of the Lady Callia, at least, she was not afraid. Now, why was that? They were in a boudoir now, all pink fluff and spun sugar. Lady Callia stood with her back against the door. She said, â€Å"This was our private way to me†¦ to my room, you know, from his office. His, you know.† And she pointed with a thumb, as though even the thought of him were grinding her soul to death with fear. â€Å"It's so lucky†¦ it's so lucky-† Her pupils had blackened out the blue with their size. â€Å"Can you tell me-† began Arcadia timidly. And Callia was in frantic motion. â€Å"No, child, no. There is no time. Take off your clothes. Please. Please. I'll get you more, and they won't recognize you.† She was in the closet, throwing useless bits of flummery in reckless heaps upon the ground, looking madly for something a girl could wear without becoming a living invitation to dalliance. â€Å"Here, this will do. It will have to. Do you have money? Here, take it all – and this.† She was stripping her ears and fingers. â€Å"Just go home – go home to your Foundation.† â€Å"But Homir†¦ my uncle.† She protested vainly through the muffling folds of the sweet-smelling and luxurious spun-metal being forced over her head. â€Å"He won't leave. Poochie will hold him forever, but you mustn't stay. Oh, dear, don't you understand?† â€Å"No.† Arcadia forced a standstill, â€Å"I don't understand.† Lady Callia squeezed her hands tightly together. â€Å"You must go back to warn your people there will be war. Isn't that clear?† Absolute terror seemed paradoxically to have lent a lucidity to her thoughts and words that was entirely out of character. â€Å"Now come!† Out another way! Past officials who stared after them, but saw no reason to stop one whom only the Lord of Kalgan could stop with impunity. Guards clicked heels and presented arms when they went through doors. Arcadia breathed only on occasion through the years the trip seemed to take – yet from the first crooking of the white finger to the time she stood at the outer gate, with people and noise and traffic in the distance was only twenty-five minutes. She looked back, with a sudden frightened pity. â€Å"I†¦ I†¦ don't know why you're doing this, my lady, but thanks- What's going to happen to Uncle Homir?† â€Å"I don't know,† wailed the other. â€Å"Can't you leave? Go straight to the spaceport. Don't wait. He may be looking for you this very minute.† And still Arcadia lingered. She would be leaving Homir; and, belatedly, now that she felt the free air about her, she was suspicious. â€Å"But what do you care if he does?† Lady Callia bit her lower lip and muttered, â€Å"I can't explain to a little girl like you. It would be improper. Well, you'll be growing up and I†¦ I met Poochie when I was sixteen. I can't have you about, you know.† There was a half-ashamed hostility in her eyes. The implications froze Arcadia. She whispered: â€Å"What will he do to you when he finds out?† And she whimpered back: â€Å"I don't know,† and threw her arm to her head as she left at a half-run, back along the wide way to the mansion of the Lord of Kalgan. But for one eternal second, Arcadia still did not move, for in that last moment before Lady Callia left, Arcadia had seen something. Those frightened, frantic eyes had momentarily – flashingly – lit up with a cold amusement. A vast, inhuman amusement. It was much to see in such a quick flicker of a pair of eyes, but Arcadia had no doubt of what she saw. She was running now – running wildly – searching madly for an unoccupied public booth at which one could press a button for public conveyance. She was not running from Lord Stettin; not from him or from all the human hounds he could place at her heels – not from all his twenty-seven worlds rolled into a single gigantic phenomenon, hallooing at her shadow. She was running from a single, frail woman who had helped her escape. From a creature who had loaded her with money and jewels; who had risked her own life to save her. From an entity she knew, certainly and finally, to be a woman of the Second Foundation. An air-taxi came to a soft clicking halt in the cradle. The wind of its coming brushed against Arcadia's face and stirred at the hair beneath the softly-furred hood Callia had given her. â€Å"Where'll it be, lady?† She fought desperately to low-pitch her voice to make it not that of a child. â€Å"How many spaceports in the city?† â€Å"Two. Which one ya want?† â€Å"Which is closer?† He stared at her: â€Å"Kalgan Central, lady.† â€Å"The other one, please. I've got the money.† She had a twenty-Kalganid note in her hand. The denomination of the note made little difference to her, but the taxi-man grinned appreciatively. â€Å"Anything ya say, lady. Sky-line cabs take ya anywhere.† She cooled her cheek against the slightly musty upholstery. The lights of the city moved leisurely below her. What should she do? What should she do? It was in that moment that she knew she was a stupid, stupid little girl, away from her father, and frightened. Her eyes were full of tears, and deep down in her throat, there was a small, soundless cry that hurt her insides. She wasn't afraid that Lord Stettin would catch her. Lady Callia would see to that. Lady Callia! Old, fat, stupid, but she held on to her lord, somehow. Oh, it was clear enough, now. Everything was clear. That tea with Callia at which she had been so smart. Clever little Arcadia! Something inside Arcadia choked and hated itself. That tea had been maneuvered, and then Stettin had probably been maneuvered so that Homir was allowed to inspect the Palace after all. She, the foolish Callia, has wanted it so, and arranged to have smart little Arcadia supply a foolproof excuse, one which would arouse no suspicions in the minds of the victims, and yet involve a minimum of interference on her part. Then why was she free? Homir was a prisoner, of course- Unless- Unless she went back to the Foundation as a decoy – a decoy to lead others into the hands of†¦ of them. So she couldn't return to the Foundation- â€Å"Spaceport, lady.† The air-taxi had come to a halt. Strange! She hadn't even noticed. What a dream-world it was. â€Å"Thanks,† she pushed the bill at him without seeing anything and was stumbling out the door, then running across the springy pavement. Lights. Unconcerned men and women. Large gleaming bulletin boards, with the moving figures that followed every single spaceship that arrived and departed. Where was she going? She didn't care. She only knew that she wasn't going to the Foundation! Anywhere else at all would suit. Oh, thank Seldon, for that forgetful moment – that last split-second when Callia wearied of her act because she had to do only with a child and had let her amusement spring through. And then something else occurred to Arcadia, something that had been stirring and moving at the base of her brain ever since the flight began – something that forever killed the fourteen in her. And she knew that she must escape. That above all. Though they located every conspirator on the Foundation; though they caught her own father; she could not dared not, risk a warning. She could not risk her own life – not in the slightest – for the entire realm of Terminus. She was the most important person in the Galaxy. She was the only important person in the Galaxy. She knew that even as she stood before the ticket-machine and wondered where to go. Because in all the Galaxy, she and she alone, except for they, themselves, knew the location of the Second Foundation.

Are Governments Controlling The Internet Essay Example for Free

Are Governments Controlling The Internet Essay Prior to the 21st century society greatest inventions were the automobile, the telephone, the airplane as a means of communication and transportation. Now individuals are blessed with the Internet. It is commonly regarded that the Internet is a manifesto of technology that allows human beings to interact with one another using networking services. The Internet has broken down the barriers and means of traditional communication. In cyberspace, people can talk with each other regardless of location. It can be defined as a â€Å"unique medium† with no geographical location but available to anyone (p. 21). It is not only used for communication but information searching, listings of products and services, advertising of large/small businesses, and much more. In essence, the Internet can be regarded as a separate entity from our own physical world – a digital utopia. The question being raised is, with the large scale of the internet, how is it maintained or even controlled? Jack Goldsmith and Tim Wu’s book Who Controls the Internet? Illusions of a Borderless World gives a perfect example of how the Internet is being directly (and indirectly) controlled by territorial government. As each section of the book is uncovered, it is clearly pointed out that national governments through control of local and global intermediaries and coercion exercise dominate control over the digital empire. The book is subdivided into three large sections. In the first section Wu and Goldsmith marks the impression to the readers that the Internet is in fact a â€Å"libertarian state† where users can freely express themselves. The authors argue at the commencement of the Internet there are no actual â€Å"rulers† or â€Å"governors† of the Internet rather it was the upheaval of a Digital American Revolution, that’s built on â€Å"language and reason and our fail in each other† (p. 22). The authors later indicate that it was open because it was willing to â€Å"accept almost any kind of computer or network†. Thus it is a society that is ruled by the humanity that resides within the Internet. â€Å"Humanity united might do better than our lousy systems of government, throw away the constructs of the nation-state, and live in some different but better way† (p. 7). Section two establishes that users from different geographical regions want their information presented in their local language. As the author pointed that language is one of the most important aspects on the internet. It gives the example that people in Brazil, Korea and France do not want English versions of Microsoft products but rather want a version they can fully understand (p. 50). As the next section unravels we start to notice how digital humanity needs rulers and starts to get involved how national governments are governing the borders of the internet. It proves that government uses coercion and local intermediaries to restrict and even block content that is on the internet. An example would be Nazi merchandise and hate sites appearing on French networks and even an incident in China where a 15 year old girl Liu Di was punished by the Chinese government when she was making an argument comparing the Chinese government and a prostitute. It also points out how controlling Governments can be a beneficial factor in regulating illegal activities such as file sharing and copyrighting. The final section of the book shows how the government aims to make the borders of the Internet a haven that protects its citizens from harm. This section explores the aspect of globalization and competing countries in controlling the Internet. Europe, U. S. and China all wishes to have a centralized power over the Internet. If two out of three countries that are in favour of online gambling while the one third is not, how can a borderless digital society solve this problem? The sections encourages decentralized governments to work together to adapt to people’s needs and respond in a more positive manner (p. 53). For the struggle of ultimate control lies within national governments – and a problem of clashing government interests and priorities can be a serious concern for the future of the Internet (p. 171). Wu and Goldsmith both agreed that this is the â€Å"beginning of a technological version of the cold war, with each side pushing its own vision of the Internet’s future† (p. 184). In order for the book to draw readers closer into fully understanding the Internet the authors must not only make a compelling argument but the style and construction of the book is also important. This essay will discuss four areas in which the book was successful or non-successful into helping readers understand the importance of national governments and their role on the Internet. The notable points in creating a compelling argument lie within the thesis, the method(s) of research, the evidence that supports the thesis and the overall evaluation/recommendation. The first point that’s important in this book is the thesis. The thesis is the main point the authors are trying to make throughout the entire book. In the book Who Controls the Internet Wu and Goldsmith stated their thesis in the conclusion rather than the introduction. Instead they decided to allure readers by telling a short story in the introduction to foreshadow readers into the overall point of the book. In my opinion the thesis of the book can found on page 180 where it reads â€Å"Beneath of fog of modern technology, we have seen the effects of coercive governmental force on local persons, firms and equipment† (p. 180). Ironically, this is not the thesis that users anticipated on hearing when they decide to read the book. On the back cover of the book it reads â€Å"a book about the fate of one idea – that the Internet might liberate us forever from government, borders and even our physical selves†. (Wu and Goldsmith) Wu and Goldsmith prompted readers with a general idea then throughout the book used examples and heated evidence to prove that idea wrong. It gives readers the perception that the Internet is in fact a challenge to governmental rule rather than the idealistic entity of freedom and liberty. The thesis was not always stated at the end of the book rather the author hinted their thesis throughout chapters to reinforce their main point along the way. For instance in chapter 5, Wu and Goldsmith talk about how local intermediaries are present and how government uses coercion to control these intermediaries, thus â€Å"ruling the internet† (p. 65). The authors stated that it would be extremely easy for individuals to â€Å"overlook how often governments control behavior not individually, but collectively, through intermediaries† (p. 68). The authors use the example of HavenCo to reinforce their thesis. In the book HavenCo was described as â€Å"the first place on earth where people are free to conduct business without someone looking over their shoulder† (p. 65). Shortly after, HavenCo became the object of negativity where porn and other offensive content were being hosted. Due to their business model they would not seek out cooperative intermediaries. However falling into a downward spiral, HavenCo became desperate so they looked towards national governments for assistance. However the government would not oblige since it was hosting offensive content and demanded that HavenCo remove the material. Of course, without this aspect â€Å"HavenCo was nothing†. And now without the support of powerful government officials and intermediaries HavenCo is now a â€Å"jumbled pile of network equipment, rotting and obsolete† (p. p. 84-85). The authors presents the readers with a clear and indirect thesis in each chapter, and as each chapter passes they are vividly trying to reinforce their thesis by providing real life evidence that happens in the midst of the digital society. Other notable examples that are highlighted in the book that supports the thesis would be the Chinese government sometimes with help from Yahoo, seize political dissidents and put them in prison (p. 181). Next, the government that are threatening Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and search engines and credit card companies with fines so that they can filter out offensive net communications. And, it is clear that Jon Postel and the Internet’s founders give up control over their creation under implied threats of governmental force. And finally, under the aspect of file sharing (where it was debated it would be hardest to control) governments have executed hidden but important ways to fuel coercion on the economy of file-sharing and â€Å"tilts the playing field to favour law-abiding companies like Apple† (p. 181). The authors have a very climatic way to communicate their thesis to the reader, By presenting support evidence and a strong conclusion they are in fact proving to readers that the government does control the internet. The next section uncovers the methodology that the authors used to present their topic. In order to prove their thesis they need an abundant amount of information. Not only does this information provide historical insight in the topic but it grants validity in the matter. In the book the authors have presented much needed evidence that governments control the internet, as each chapter is unraveled the readers are engulfed with powerful side stories of the lives of specific individuals that resided in the digital age. The book uses a combination of statistical information and encoded facts, personal biographies and appealing stories. If we direct our attention to the sources at the end of the book we notice that the authors use a hefty number of secondary sources. The only notable errors that are present in their methodology were that the sources they used were a little out of date. Old sources will lead to skewed results and that might cause a misinterpretation of the research. The book was written and published in 2006 but the majority of sources they used were within the 1998-2001 timeframe. Although they did use several sources that were recent (2005) it still does not change the fact that the Internet and technology are always changing in real time. With this change it’s rather hard to keep up and readers can be misinformed of with irrelevant information rather than significant information. Although with these slight flaws in the book, the methods were applied correctly in the sense that it is very easy to understand. They have broken the entire book into three parts; each part builds up information for that peak ending (or thesis). The methods were appropriate in the sense that the authors had a balance of evidence to support their claim. For example, the information gathered was not all focused on the government’s point of view but rather an equal split between government, organizations and individuals. It would be naive to think that a proper thesis can be proved without the support of evidence. Methodically the authors predominately still influence the readers with horror stories and statistics of government coercion on digital societies to prove their thesis. For example, the chapter on China outlines President Bill Clinton’s visit to the foreign land. Clinton observed that users required national ID cards before logging on. Regulated cafes also featured cameras pointed directly at the computer screen and police officers would occasionally monitor users right behind their back (p. 97). In China the Internet is far from being a liberating force but rather it is the major attraction for government surveillance. As previously mentioned Liu Di was arrested on personally insulting the government over the Internet, shortly after Liu Di’s story was printed in the press as a warming to all other civilians using the Internet. Throughout the book we see many stories that mimic the true horrors of the Internet, presented in a non-fictitious way to leaves readers shunned into believing the overall message of the book. Other factual occurrences that are displayed in Wu and Goldsmith’s methodology are the Kazaa/Napster case where digital piracy was at its initial state. Napster, a company located in the United States was battling with court officials to stay alive. With no luck, a simple U. S. ourt order was easily enforced and that led â€Å"to a total system collapse† (p. 108). Another factor that stands out with the evidence was that it’s very diverse in the geographical sense. The authors not only present their ideas from the American standpoint but tackles on other regions of the world. In the introduction the authors commences a deep discussion on global borders of the internet, the evidence and support was from a simply disgruntled individual that didn’t like seeing Nazi merc handise on the French site of Yahoo (p. p. 1-10). By using this intrinsic method of communicating the thesis they are successful in the sense of drawing readers. This chapter rather than supporting the thesis, they argue against it saying that the Internet â€Å"cannot be regulated†. Using factual data, they are offering both sides of the story in a very objective manner. This helps readers understand the thesis a little better and perhaps even raise serious questions on a political, global and technological standpoint. Who Controls the Internet is a very accurate portrayal of the digital society. It tells readers the important message that originally the Internet was designed to liberate individuals and it was designed to escape government and borders, but without the government mingling in affairs the Internet as we know it today wouldn’t flourish. One of the few appealing factors of this book is that it speaks out in a very clear and engaging style. Within each chapter the author conveniently uses sub-headings to divide important topics and that each chapter features several compelling stories. The two authors, who are both lawyers does an excellent job of communicating the legal issues to the readers without heavy use of legal jargon. Despite the many praises the book gets, it still has some flaws. In my opinion the flaws are contained within the unnecessary pictures and images that are included. Many (if not all) of the pictures are unneeded. For instance on page 4 it shows a rather large photo of the Palais de Justice, where the Yahoo case was litigated and similarly on page 66 shows a picture of Sealand where HavenCo was initiated. Although visualizations are nice they have no purpose in proving the thesis. How can a picture of Jon Postel who is described as â€Å"a rambling, ragged look, living in sandals, and a large, unkempt beard† help readers understand the dominate government forces on the Internet. In another part of the book Wu and Goldsmith dedicated half a page to Steve Jobs and as a background; shows a skull and sword insignia and was labeled â€Å"Piracy†. In retrospect the authors should have gotten rid of filler photography and replaced it with diagrams, which brings up the next flaw, the limited use of diagrams within the book. A diagram can help readers understand the point the author is trying to prove in either a passage or chapter. Back to the Steve Jobs example, if the authors showed using a diagram how Apple and national governments were combating internet piracy it would strengthen their thesis in proving that government controls most sides of the Internet. Or even a timeline that showed how government intervened with such programs such as Napster, Kazaa and then taking on Apple. This book appeals to a large audience of graduate, undergraduate students and professors teaching either politics or information technology. The benefits include that readers of this book can raise important questions and use these questions as the foundation for political debates. The content is not the only contributing factor in a well rounded book, Wu and Goldsmith does an excellent job in constructing the book that’s easily presentable to the reader. Even an individual with very little prior knowledge of the Internet can understand the book. Each term is defined when it is firstly introduced. Next, at the end on page 187 the authors implemented a â€Å"frequency used abbreviations† section and the definition in case the reader is having a hard time following due to the technological jargon. In conclusion, there are four areas that were used to critically analyze the book. They are the thesis, the methodology, the evidence used to construct the book and the personal evaluation. This book presents many important topics that relate to past, presents and futures of the technological era. It is telling a story where digital democracies suffer at the ends of coercive governments. It is not just powerful nations have the power to reshape the Internet’s architecture, more specifically it is the United States, China and Europe using their dominate power to reestablish their own version of the Internet. Are Governments Controlling The Internet. (2016, Nov 16).